Philosophy revision holiday challenge 2

What does Plato refer the sun to?
In the sensible world, the sun is the supreme in that it gives life to all things. Plato calls it the form of the Good which is the highest form in the Intelligible World. It gives life to other Forms and allows them to be recognised.
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What are Aristotle's views on the Prime Mover in his cosmology?
The Prime Mover is understood as the Final Cause of all "motus" from potentiality to actuality.
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What are the characteristics of the Prime Mover?
It is pure actuality and the final cause of the universe. It draws everything towards itself through attraction. It is indifferent to the universe and not a creator in the sense of a maker of things.
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What is Substance Dualism?
The idea that the body and soul (psyche) are wholly different substances, of a different nature. The view found most strongly in Descartes, but rejected by Gilbert Ryle.
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Ideas about Materialists/Monists?
Like R.Dawkins they are reductionists as they refuse to believe in a non-physical, invisible soul that is beyond the scope of empirical testing (although, by definition, there's no empirical way to show that a soul doesn't exist).
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What does Dawkins quote regarding his Materialistic approach?
"There is no spirit-driven life force, no throbbing, heaving, pullulating, protoplasmic, mystic jelly."
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How does the Big Bang Theory challenge the Cosmological argument?
It should not be confused with evolution. It challenges the cosmological argument in that it suggests that the world was created by a cosmic explosion in one singular movement of time.
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What are Christian ideas about creation?
Also known as "ex nihilo". There is the belief that God created the world by an act of will out of nothing. This contrasts with the Ancient Greek belief of Plato and Aristotle who believe that matter has always existed.
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How does Darwin's theory of evolution challenge the Teleological Argument?
It supposes that all species that exist now have come about through random chance, not as a product of Divine design.
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What does Michael Behe believe?
He is a modern day philosopher who argues that certain features of living things are so irreducibly complex that they cannot be explained by evolution.
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What is an example of living things being so complex that they cannot be caused by evolution?
the bloods ability to clot is better explained by the conscious design of an intelligent God.
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What does A. Brown believe?
He suggests that the ozone layer is a mighty proof of creator's forethought as it's just the right thickness to prevent death to every living thing.
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However, What does A. Brown argue?
This world that lacks aims and principles is not shaped by metaphysical forces.
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How can attitudes towards God become negative?
J.S Mill observed the natural evil in the world which led him to conclude "Either there is no God or there exists an incompetent or immoral God".
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What does Haekel say as negative evidence regarding God?
Dysteleology is evidence of chaos or at best an evil God.
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What is F.R Tenants Anthropic Principle?
It is based upon the fact that the world can be analysed in a rational way meaning that the world cannot be chaotic and has to be the product of an intelligent design.
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What does F. Copleston say about Aquinas' contingency argument?
He reformulated the argument by arguing that an infinite regress of cause and effect cannot be held responsible for the existence of everything in the universe.
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What is F. Copleston's argument a modern reworking of?
Leibniz Principle of Sufficient Reason.
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What are some criticisms of the modern formulations of the Cosmological argument?
B.Russell replied to Copleston by saying "Every man who exists has a mother, and it seems to me your argument is that therefore the human race must have a mother, but obviously the human race hasn't a mother".
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What does Descartes say about existence in relation to God?
It is as necessary to God as the idea of 3 sides being necessary to a triangle, they cannot be separated.
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How does Kant respond to existence being necessary to God?
"Existence is not a predicate". If you do not have the triangle, you neither have it's three sides. Similarly you don't have to accept God is necessary if you don't accept there is a God!
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How does Plantinga's modern model of the Ontological argument go?
The only way God couldn't exist is if his existence is impossible. But, even an atheist must admit that God's existence isn't impossible.
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Continuation of Plantinga's modern model of the Ontological argument?
As we are referring to God who is maximally great, his existence must be more than just possible, it must be necessary and actual.
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What are S. Freud's views on religious experiences?
He claimed that they are a symptom of a neurotic illness, illusions are created by the mind in attempt to deal with a chaotic and frightening world.
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What are Schleiermacher's views on religious experiences?
They are at the heart of all religion as they are accessible to all. We all have a "sense of absolute dependence" but is obscured to some.
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What does William James say regarding religious experiences?
He agrees with Schleiermacher and considers that the ordinary man shuts himself off to the spiritual world.
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How does Swinburne use the Principle of credulity and the Principle of Testimony to justify his views?
We should treat religious experiences as genuine. P. Vardy illustrated the idea stating "You would buy a used car off Mother Teresa."
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Why are B. Russell and A.J Ayer sceptical of religious experiences?
"There is no distinction between the man who eats little (aesetic) and sees heaven and the man who drinks lots and sees snakes" (Russell)
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What does A.J Ayer say relating to his scepticism of religious experiences?
"If a mystic admits that the object of his vision is ineffable then he must admit that it is nonsense".
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What are C.S Evans views on religious experiences?
Even a theist is able to make a distinction between the "religious dimension to life" (the habit they have of interpreting everyday events in religious terms) and a "religious experience" itself which refers to a perceived actual encounter with God.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are Aristotle's views on the Prime Mover in his cosmology?


The Prime Mover is understood as the Final Cause of all "motus" from potentiality to actuality.

Card 3


What are the characteristics of the Prime Mover?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Substance Dualism?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Ideas about Materialists/Monists?


Preview of the front of card 5
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