AQA A2 Detailed notes on new Philosophy Spec.

Complete notes for new exam board on..



Virtue Ethics

Ethical Language 

Applied Ethics.

Substance Dualism

Property Dualism

Materialism (Inc Behaviourism, Type Identity Theory, Functionalism & Eliminative Materialism). 

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Page 1

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01 September 2015 13:03

The mind­body problem: What is the relationship between the mental and the physical?

Dualism: the mind is distinct from the physical
The indivisibility argument for substance dualism (Descartes)
Issues, including:
· the mental is divisible in some sense
· not everything thought of as physical…

Page 2

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07 September 2015 19:22

What is the Mind ?

How does it relate to the Body ?

What is the relationship between the mental and the physical ?

Substance is an entity with ontological independence, it doesn't not depend upon another entity
for its continued existence.

Dualism - The…

Page 3

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held belief in the soul and the after life - it's unable to substantiate strong enough evidence to
explain the relationship between the mind and the body and how the physical can affect mental
states, both temporarily and permanently. Talking about the mind is just talking about the body's

Page 4

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Descartes Substance Dualism
01 September 2015 16:14

Descartes Dualism in short.
Descartes began from his cogito argument of doubting everything but his ability to doubt which helped
him establish the existence of his mind. He then follows on from Leibniz's law of indiscernibles 'if two
things are exactly identical then…

Page 5

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Indivisibility Argument
01 September 2015 16:14

In the sixth mediation, Descartes begins by differentiating between his conceptions of imagination
and understanding. Imagination is not a property of 'I' or the thinking being as he can think of 'I'
existing without imagination. He has the faculty of imagination but believes it…

Page 6

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Conceivability Argument
01 September 2015 16:15

The Conceivability Argument
1. I have a clear and distinct idea of myself as something that thinks and isn't extended
2. I have a clear and distinct idea of body as something that is extended and does not think
3. If I have a…

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Criticisms of Substance Dualism Summary
08 October 2015 18:15

Descartes Substance Dualism Critiques
1. What is conceivable isn't necessarily possible ; masked man fallacy
2. Descartes does not clearly explain the relationship between the mind and body
3. Materialism is also logically possible and therefore also can be true, Descartes…

Page 8

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no evidence that the mind does not change what happens in the brain, if dualism is true, then some
brain events have no physical cause. The empirical evidence is not against dualism, or for dualism.
Perhaps they are incompatible.

Epiphenomenalist Dualism
We could accept that the objections above show that…

Page 9

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The argument from analogy claims that we can use the behaviour of other people to infer that they
have minds too. It was first presented by John Stuart Mill. (The first form is often attributed to Mill,
but the second form is a better interpretation.)
1. I have a mind.…

Page 10

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experience of `minds' on their own. So we have to attribute mental properties to something that
also has physical properties. Mental and physical properties have to be attributed to the same thing
for us to attribute mental characteristics to anything at all. This threatens the claim that the mind is…


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