AQA A2 Detailed notes on new Philosophy Spec.

Complete notes for new exam board on..

Utilitarianism

Deontology

Virtue Ethics

Ethical Language 

Applied Ethics.

Substance Dualism

Property Dualism

Materialism (Inc Behaviourism, Type Identity Theory, Functionalism & Eliminative Materialism). 

Pages in this set

Page 1

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Specification
01 September 2015 13:03
The mind­body problem: What is the relationship between the mental and the physical?
Dualism: the mind is distinct from the physical The indivisibility argument for substance dualism
(Descartes) Issues, including:
· the mental is divisible in some sense
· not everything thought of as physical…

Page 2

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Introduction
07 September 2015 19:22
What is the Mind ?
How does it relate to the Body ?
What is the relationship between the mental and the physical ?
Substance is an entity with ontological independence, it doesn't not depend upon
another entity for its continued existence.
Dualism - The…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
enough evidence to

Page 4

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held belief in the soul and the after life - it's unable to substantiate strong enough evidence to
explain the relationship between the mind and the body and how the physical can affect mental
states, both temporarily and permanently. Talking about the mind is just talking about the body's
ability…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Descartes Substance Dualism
01 September 2015 16:14
Descartes Dualism in short. Descartes began from his cogito argument of doubting everything
but his ability to doubt which helped him establish the existence of his mind. He then follows on
from Leibniz's law of indiscernibles 'if two things are exactly identical then…

Page 6

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Indivisibility Argument
01 September 2015 16:14
In the sixth mediation, Descartes begins by differentiating between his conceptions of
imagination and understanding. Imagination is not a property of 'I' or the thinking being as he
can think of 'I' existing without imagination. He has the faculty of imagination but believes it…

Page 7

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Conceivability Argument
01 September 2015 16:15
The Conceivability Argument
1. I have a clear and distinct idea of myself as something that thinks and isn't extended 2. I have
a clear and distinct idea of body as something that is extended and does not think 3.
If I have a…

Page 8

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clearly at the same time. That is because this requires one to conceive them as one single thing
and at the same time as two things, which is contradictory. The idea of the union between the
mind and body for Descartes is a third 'basic notion' alongside the ideas of…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Criticisms of Substance Dualism Summary
08 October 2015 18:15

Descartes Substance Dualism Critiques
1. What is conceivable isn't necessarily possible; masked man fallacy 2. Descartes does
not clearly explain the relationship between the mind and body 3.
Materialism is also logically possible and therefore also can be true, Descartes doesn't…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
universe.
·
Descartes response would be to claim, physics is wrong to think that physical movement can
only be caused by physical force. You can't use physics to explain a non-physical thing, there is
a certain epistemic distance between us and our understanding of the mind.
However, neuroscience also shows…

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AQA A2 Detailed notes on new Philosophy Spec.

Complete notes for new exam board on..

Utilitarianism

Deontology

Virtue Ethics

Ethical Language 

Applied Ethics.

Substance Dualism

Property Dualism

Materialism (Inc Behaviourism, Type Identity Theory, Functionalism & Eliminative Materialism). 

Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Specification
01 September 2015 13:03
The mind­body problem: What is the relationship between the mental and the physical?
Dualism: the mind is distinct from the physical The indivisibility argument for substance dualism
(Descartes) Issues, including:
· the mental is divisible in some sense
· not everything thought of as physical…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Introduction
07 September 2015 19:22
What is the Mind ?
How does it relate to the Body ?
What is the relationship between the mental and the physical ?
Substance is an entity with ontological independence, it doesn't not depend upon
another entity for its continued existence.
Dualism - The…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
enough evidence to

Page 4

Preview of page 4
held belief in the soul and the after life - it's unable to substantiate strong enough evidence to
explain the relationship between the mind and the body and how the physical can affect mental
states, both temporarily and permanently. Talking about the mind is just talking about the body's
ability…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Descartes Substance Dualism
01 September 2015 16:14
Descartes Dualism in short. Descartes began from his cogito argument of doubting everything
but his ability to doubt which helped him establish the existence of his mind. He then follows on
from Leibniz's law of indiscernibles 'if two things are exactly identical then…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Indivisibility Argument
01 September 2015 16:14
In the sixth mediation, Descartes begins by differentiating between his conceptions of
imagination and understanding. Imagination is not a property of 'I' or the thinking being as he
can think of 'I' existing without imagination. He has the faculty of imagination but believes it…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
Conceivability Argument
01 September 2015 16:15
The Conceivability Argument
1. I have a clear and distinct idea of myself as something that thinks and isn't extended 2. I have
a clear and distinct idea of body as something that is extended and does not think 3.
If I have a…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
clearly at the same time. That is because this requires one to conceive them as one single thing
and at the same time as two things, which is contradictory. The idea of the union between the
mind and body for Descartes is a third 'basic notion' alongside the ideas of…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Criticisms of Substance Dualism Summary
08 October 2015 18:15

Descartes Substance Dualism Critiques
1. What is conceivable isn't necessarily possible; masked man fallacy 2. Descartes does
not clearly explain the relationship between the mind and body 3.
Materialism is also logically possible and therefore also can be true, Descartes doesn't…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
universe.
·
Descartes response would be to claim, physics is wrong to think that physical movement can
only be caused by physical force. You can't use physics to explain a non-physical thing, there is
a certain epistemic distance between us and our understanding of the mind.
However, neuroscience also shows…

Comments

No comments have yet been made