P4g: Treatment

The concept of medical physics runs through this item. Radiations are important medicinal tools. This item looks at the use of radiations and the precautions taken to reduce the potential risks. 

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Two similarities between X rays and gamma rays.
Both are ionising electromagnetic waves, and have similar wavelengths.
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A difference between X rays and gamma rays.
They are produced in different ways.
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How are medical radioisotopes produced?
By placing materials into a nuclear reactor.
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The uses of nuclear radiation in medicine (3)
Diagnosis, Treatment of cancer using Gamma Rays, and Sterilisation of equipment.
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Which types of radiation can pass through the skin?
Gamma and Beta.
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What can nuclear radiation do to cells?
Damage them.
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Who are radiographers?
Trained specialist staff who use X ray machines.
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What precautions must radiographers carry out?
Shielded walls contain lead to protect people outside.They routinely leave the room,or stand behind a screen containing lead.In situations where radiographers cannot stand behind a screen,they wear lead aprons-act as a protective layer of clothing.
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What do materials absorb?
Some ionising radiation.
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What does the image produced by the absorption of X-rays depend on?
The thickness and density of the absorbing materials.
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How are gamma rays given out?
From the nucleus of certain radioactive materials.
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How are X-Rays made?
By firing high speed electrons at metal targets.
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How X-rays are controlled.
hot cathode emits electrons that are attracted 2 tungsten anode.When fastmoving electrons hit metal target,most their kinetic energy is transferred to heat,some transferred to x.This machine allows energy&intensity of x be controlled.
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How are Gamma rays controlled?
Gamma rays are given out by radioactive materials. This process is totally random and so cannot be controlled as easily as x-rays.
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How can materials become radioactive?
A result of absorbing extra neutrons.
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Why can Gamma (and sometimes Beta) emitters be used as tracers in the body?
This is because gamma rays and beta particles can pass through skin, whereas alpha particles cannot.
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Why should medical tracers not remain in the body for long periods of time?
Nuclear radiation can damage cells.
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Explain how radioactive sources are used in medicine to treat cancer.
Gamma rays focus on tumour, wide beam used, rotated around the patient with tumour at centre - limiting damage to non cancerous tissue.
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Explain how radioactive sources are used in medicine as tracers.
Beta or Gamma emitter with a short half life, drunk/eaten/ingested/injected into the body, allowed to spread through the body, followed on outside by radiation detector.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A difference between X rays and gamma rays.

Back

They are produced in different ways.

Card 3

Front

How are medical radioisotopes produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The uses of nuclear radiation in medicine (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which types of radiation can pass through the skin?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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