What are the functions of the skeleton?
1. Support the body. 2. Store minerals (calcium, phosphorus) 3. Make red blood cells, platelets and some white blood cells. 4. Allow for movement. 5. Protect internal organs (pelvis protect reproductive organs)
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How does exercise change bones?
Weight bearing exercises (jogging) stimulate bone growth increasing it's density. Inactivity makes bones less dense and weaker
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What are the two types of joints?
Ball-and-socket joints and hinge joints.
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What are ball-and-socket joints like?
They are very versatile and can move in every direction. They are at you hips and shoulders.
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What are hinge joints like?
They can only move in two directions - backwards and forwards. They are at your knees and elbows.
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What are tendons?
A tough band of elastic tissue attaching muscle to bone.
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What are ligaments?
Bands of tough elastic tissue holding bones to each other. They hold bones in place and limits how far they can move.
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What is cartilage?
A smooth protective surface that covers the bone ends providing easy movement. It forms a rubbery shock-absorbing coat, it stops bones from damaging each other.
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What does synovial fluid to?
it lubricates and nourishes the tissues in the joint capsule.
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What does the synovial membrane do?
It lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid.
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What is meant by the terms antagonistic pair?
Muscles that work opposite each other. (biceps and triceps)
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What might be asked before a person starts a new exercise regime?
If they or anyone in their family suffers from certain medical conditions, if they have suffered any injuries (especially to back and joints) if they are on any medication, what their lifestyle is like.
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What fitness tests could be carried out to collect baseline data?
Heart rate, Blood pressure, Recovery period, Proportion of body fat and BMI
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What happens to the data collected as someone gets fitter compared to their baseline data?
Heart rate decreases, Blood pressure reduces, Recovery period shortens, Proportion of body fat decreases and BMI will fall.
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What does accurate mean?
An accurate instrument or procedure gives a 'true' reading.
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What does calibrated mean?
It means that the measurement from the equipment under test is compared to the measurement of equipment that is know to be of the correct standard.
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What dies repeatable mean?
If you get similar results with each re-run of an experiment
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What must be done when measuring your heart rate?
Make sure you use your fingers rather than a thumb as it has its own pulse which might confuse you.
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What must be done when measuring blood pressure?
Make sure that the equipment is not damaged or has low battery power. Always measure your blood pressure sitting down with your arm at chest height as raising your arm reduces the pressure. Remember that if you are stressed the values will be higher
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What must be done when measuring revovery period?
Repeat calculations and use an average.
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What must be done when measuring body fat?
Take care reading the scales and make sure that you are reading the correct units(not imperial units) and take the reading at the right place on the scale.
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What must be done when measuring the BMI?
Remember that your mass will vary at different times of the day and so always measure your body at the same time each day. Make sure that the source for graphs or table is reputable. Remember there are different graphs for men, women and children.
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What are the symptoms of a sprained ligament?
Redness and swelling, surface bruising, difficulty walking, dull, throbbing ache or sharp, cramping pain.
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What does RICE stand for?
Rest, ice, compression and elevation.
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What does rest involve in terms of the RICE method?
Immobilising the injured part.
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What does ice involve in terms of the RICE method?
It acts as an anaesthetic, reduces swelling and slows the flow of blood to the injured area. To avoid directly damaging the tissue, the ice is applied indirectly for up to 20 mins at a time with 30 mins between applications,
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What does compression involve in terms of the RICE method?
It involves wrapping a bandage round the injured part to reduce swelling. The bandage should be snug but not too tight so that it cuts off the blodd supply.
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What does elevation involve in terms of the RICE method?
It means raising the injured limb in order to reduce the swelling by helping to keep excess fluid away from the damaged area.
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What follows the RICE method and what do these involve?
Simple stretching exercises help regain mobility but only when swelling stops. Aerobic exercising of injured part is not restarted until it has regained at least 75% of the previous strength level and then only moderately.
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What happens when a ligament tears?
It may tear with a popping sound , leaving the joint painfully bruised and very hard to bend. There might be a dent where the ligament is torn.
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What can happen to tendons is sports which involve a lot of jumping such as basketball?
Tendons can stretch, become inflamed, and even snap like a worn-out elastic band.
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What is a dislocation?
It is when the bone slips out of the joint.
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In what sport are knee dislocations common and how do they happen?
Gymnastics. Floor routines put a lot of force on the the joints and if they land off balance their kneecap can become dislocated.
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What sort of sports are shoulder dislocations common?
Contact sports such as rugby.
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What sort of injuries are common in footballers?
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At rest how many times a minute does your heart beat?
About 60-80 time per minute.
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What is blood plasma?
It is mainly water and is the pale yellow liquid that cells float in.
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What does blood plasma do?
It transports a range of materials including nutrients such as glucose, antibodies, hormones and waste such as carbon dioxide and urea. It gives blood its bulk and helps distribute heat around the body.
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What are the three main types of cells that float in plasma?
Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
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What is the function of red blood cells?
To transport oxygen around your body.
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What is the function of white blood cells?
To fight infection. They produce antibodies, and engulf and digest microorganisms by phagocytosis.
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What is the function of platelets?
They play an important role in blood clotting at an injury site. They stick to the edge of a cut and send out chemicals that trigger a series of reactions that form a clot at the cut site.
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How are red blood cells adapted to their function?
They have no nucleus which allows more space for haemoglobin. They have a biconcave shape which gives the cells a large surface are making the diffusion of gases very efficient, This shape also gives cell flexibility to squeeze through tiny capillari
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What sort of circulatory system is the human heart and why do we call it this?
Double circulatory system because the blood passes through the heart twice on every circuit of the body.
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Where does blood from the body enter and through what vein does it enter the heart?
It enters the right atrium through the vena cava, which is the main vein from the body.
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What happens to the blood after it enters the right atrium?
It is pumped out of the right ventricle towards the lungs through the pulmonary artery.
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In the lungs what happens to the blood?
It picks up blood and becomes oxygenated.
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What happens after blood has been oxygenated at the lungs?
It enters the left atrium through the pulmonary vein and passes in to the left ventricle. It then gets a harder pump which carries the blood around the body through the aorta.
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What happens to the blood when it carried around the body?
It gradually gives up its oxygen to the cells and becomes deoxygenated. It then returns to the right atrium.
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Why is the wall thickness of the right and left ventricle different?
The left ventricle has a thicker wall because the blood needs to be at a higher pressure so that it can be pumper around the whole of the body. Whereas the right ventricle only needs to pump it to the lungs and so needs a lower pressure.
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What doe the different valves in the heart do?
The valves between the atrium and ventricle stop blood flowing backwards from the ventricles into the atria. The valves between the ventricle and arteries stop blood flowing backwards from the arteries into the ventricles.
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What happens in capillaries?
They are where chemical in the body's cells and in the blood are exchanged.
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How are capillaries adapted to their function?
Capillary walls are one cell thick and very porous making diffusion much more efficient.
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What happens when blood enters a capillary bed from an artery?
The blood is at high pressure and is squeezed out of the capillary forming a liquid called tissue fluid.
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What is the purpose of tissue fluid?
Tissue fluid contains all the dissolved raw materials being carried by blood plasma, including glucose and oxygen. These chemicals diffuse into the cells. Wast products from cells, including carbon dioxide and urea diffuse out into the tissue fluid.
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Why does tissue fluid move back into capillaries towards the end of the capillary bed?
As the blood passes through the capillary bed the pressure drops. Plasma stops being squeezed out, and tissue fluid moves back in.
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What is one way in which your body gains heat and why?
Respiration because some of the energy released from breaking down glucose warms your body.
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What two things must be balanced to keep your body temperature steady?
Energy gain must be balanced by energy loss.
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What should your core temperature be?
Between 36 degrees centigrade and 37.5 degrees centigrade.
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Why is not all of your body the same temperature?
Your extremities are cooler than your core because they have a larger surface area compared with their size and so lose energy to the environment faster than the main parts of your body.
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Where are temperature receptors that detect blood and what else does this do?
The area of the brain called the hypothalamus, it is also the processing centre for temperature control.
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How does shivering warm you up?
Muscles contract quickly and so respire faster to release the energy for this movement,
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How does hair raising warm you up?
The erector muscles make hair stand on edge, which traps a layer of warm air.
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What are some warming behaviours and why do they warm you up?
Exercise- respiration, More clothes- reduce heat loss, move to a warm place or having a hot drink will also warm you up.
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How does vasoconstriction warm you up?
The muscles in the walls of blood vessels near the surface of the skin contract. Less blood flows near the surface of the skin, so less energy ow lost to the environment.
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How does vasodilation cool you down?
Tee blood vessels near the surface of skin are filled with blood as they relax. Energy from the warm blood is transferred down the temperature gradient to the environment.
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Describe the process of vasodilation.
Temperature receptors detect a rise in temperature, The hypothalamus receives impulses from the temperature receptors. Nerve impulses to muscles in blood vessels are stopped. Vasodilation takes place.
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Describe the process of vasoconstriction.
Temperature receptors detect a fall in temperature, The hypothalamus receives impulses from the temperature receptors. Nerve impulses are sent to muscles in blood vessel walls. Vasoconstriction takes place.
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How does sweating cool you down?
Water molecules in sweat gain energy from your skin, Soon they move quickly enough to evaporate. This cools you down.
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What are some cooling behaviours and why so they cool you down?
Taking a break from exercise or moving to the shade will let your body temperature recover. Removing clothes- increases rate of heat loss, wet your skin or fan yourself- evaporation.
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What causes type 1 diabetes?
Some people develop it when they are young when their pancreas suddenly stops making enough insulin.
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What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?
Thirst and the production of large volumes of urine containing sugar.
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What happens if your blood sugar levels rise too high or fall too low?
To high - drowsy, too low- may go into a coma.
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How is type 1 treated?
People need several daily injections of insulin to control their blood sugar level. They also have to be careful about what they eat, to match their sugar intake with their lifestyle.
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What causes type 2 diabetes?
People with a poor diet, inactive lifestly or who are obese may develop type 2 diabetes in middle age. This is because the body gradually stops making enough insulin for your needs or the cells can't use the insulin properly.
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What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?
Thirst, frequent urination, tiredness and weight loss.
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Whatare some of the problems associated withe type 2 diabetes?
Over time type 2 diabetes can cause 'hardening of the arteries' which can lea to heart attack, kidney damage, or sight problems-where blood vessels in the retina are involved.
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How is type 2 diabetes treated?
People withe type 2 diabetes need to take regular, moderate exercise to control their blood sugar levels. They have to eat carefully and plan their diet, so that sugar is released steadily.
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What should all diabetics do when exercising?
Make sure that they have a sweet snack or sugary sports drink nearby in case their blood sugar levels fall to low.
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What can exercise do?
It strengthens muscles, improves co-ordination, develops self-discipline, helps maintain a healthy body mass and bring you a lot of enjoyment and rewards.
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What illnesses can an unhealthy diet lead to?
Heart disease, diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, bowel cancer and anorexia.
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What is one reason why people in different countries have different rates of illness?
Some of the differences can be explained be differences in food. For example people in Japan people eat less red meat and more fish than people in the UK. Rate of heart disease in Japan is lower than in the UK.
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Why is there a difference in the rate of bowel cancer between developed and developing countries?
Diets in developing countries are often high in fibre so food passes quickly through the digestive system. In developed countries people eat more refined, processed food, they take longer to travel through so any toxins are in contact for longer.
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What sort of foods increase the risk of cancer?
Alcohol, processed and red meat and salt.
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What sort of foods decrease the risk of cancer?
Fruit and vegetable, fibre and dairy products.
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What removes sugar from the blood?
The hormone insulin.
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Why are foods that are high in fibre and comlex carbohydrates better for you?
These sort of foods are digested slowly and their sugars are released gradually into your blood stream so there is not a lot of sugar being added to your body at one.
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What is a 'risk factor'?
These are things that increase your chance of becoming ill.
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What is a linear system?
A system based on the take-make-dump model.
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What is meant by sustainable?
Using the Earth's resources in a way that can continue in the future, rather than destroying them.
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Why can linear systems only continue for a short time?
Fossil fuels are running our, natural resources are being used more quickly than they are being replaced, making products uses a lot of energy from fossil fuels and creates a lot of waste, waste from broken/worn-out products, waste can be harmful.
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What are some of the problems associated with waste?
Waste can be harmful to people and wildlife, and can stay in the environment for a long time and waste means that rare resources such as metals are spread thinly around the environment, so they van't be reused easily.
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What is a closed loop system?
A system with no waste-everything is recycled.
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Why do closed-loop systems have no waste?
It is because output from one part of the system become the input for another part, so X's waste becomes Y's food. E.g plant waste is eaten by snails, faeces from snails is broken down by microorganisms they release nitrogen and phosphorus- to plants
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What are natural closed-loop systems called?
Ecosystems, which are living organisms plus their non-living environment working together, such as lakes,woodlands, grasslands, beaches and coral reefs.
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In natural ecosystems what is some of the waste?
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and dead organic matter.
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What are some examples of how barn owls live in a closed-loop system?
Droppings- broken down by microorganisms, releases nitrates and phosphates- plants take up for growth. Pellets- Bones dissolve in rain. Clothes moth larvae eat fur. Dead owls-burying beetles lay eggs in bodies and larvae eat flesh. Baby owl week e
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What is a human community that still lives in a closed-loop system?
The Maasai people.
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Why are Maasai villages sustainable?
Their huts are made from sticks, grass, mud, ash and dung. They are fully biodegradable and therefore sustainable. Their village is surrounded with a fence made of thorny branches this is also biodegradable.
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Why does the Maasai diet cause so little damage to the environment?
They do not hunt game or birds and they do not eat much meat. This means they are not removing as much from the ecosystem. They drink milk more of which can be produced. When they die, their bodies are left out for scavengers, so they become food.
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What is dead organic matter (DOM)?
It includes things such as fallen branches, leaves, petals and fruits. It is any material that was once part of a living organism, It also includes waste material from animals such as faeces and bodies,
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What organisms are waiting for DOM?
Worms nibble leaves and grind then up in their gut, the are digested by enzymes. Threads of fungi in the soil release digestive enzymes that break down DOM. Dung beetles roll up faeces into pellets, then bury the pellets and lay eggs in them.
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Why are bacteria in the soil very important?
Without bacteria there would be no recycling of reactants such as carbon and nitrogen in ecosystems.
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What types of bacteria are involved in the nitrogen cycle?
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Decomposing bacteria. Other bacteria convert ammonium ions into nitrates, In anaerobic soil bacteria change nitrates into nitrogen gas.
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How are bacteria involved in the carbon cycle?
Bacteria break down carbohydrates in DOM. The carbohydrates provide glucose for respiration, this releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere,
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Why is a lot of pollen, petals and fruit produced by plants?
It increases the chance that some will reach other flowers and pollinate them. They are maximising their chances of reproducing successfully. Plants compete with each other to attract pollinators, Lots of big bright petals attract many pollinators.
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Why do animals produce lots of eggs and sperm?
Eggs contain a lot of protein, so many are eaten by predators before the eggs hatch. Young hatchlings are also eaten in large quantities. A male producing many sperm cells increases his chances of fathering offspring.
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What is a stable ecosystem?
An ecosystem that renews itself and does not change.
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Why are natural systems not wasteful?
Any DOM decomposes and the materials are recycled. Water, nitrogen, carbon and oxygen simply circulate around the ecosystem. Natural systems do not need to worry about wasting energy because they have a constant source-the Sun.
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Why are most ecosystems not perfect closed loop systems?
When birds migrate in the winter, not all of the birds will return in the spring. So some material is permanently removed from their summer homes. Rivers carry branches, leaves, nutrients and silt away. Coral reefs grow larger as they take minerals.
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What are ecosystem services?
Life-support systems that we depend on for our survival.
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What does deforestation mean?
Cutting down and clearing forests leaving bare ground.
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Why is soil erosion a problem caused by deforestation?
The roots of trees reduce soil erosion by holding the soil together.However, deforestation mean that this no longer happens causing rain to fall on bare ground and washes away the soil. The eroded soil silts up rivers and blocks drains.
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What is another problem associated with deforestation?
Before deforestation water evaporation from the forest canopy generated clouds and rain and cooled the air. However, deforestation means this no longer happens.
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What can be done to protect and restore natural closed-loop systems?
Forests can be replanted or protected and flood water can be diverted into wells to restore underground water levels.
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Why is ploughing a problem?
It damages earthworms this means the soil becomes compacted and crops do not grow so well because earthworms play an important role in breaking down DOM, and mixing and aerating the soil.
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What is a solution to the problems caused by ploughing?
Direct drilling is being tested. This is planting seeds directly into the soil without ploughing first. For example **** seed can be planted directly into wheat stubble.
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What are the advantages of direct drilling?
It means that the worms are not damaged and the soil is more fertile. It shows how we can grow crops without destroying the ecosystem services we depend on.
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Where does waste come from in our take-make-dump linear lifestyle?
From households, industry and burning fossil fuels.
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What does non-biodegradable mean?
Waste materials that microorganisms cannot break down.For example, glass, synthetic fabrics, some pesticides and many plastics, This means that they stay around in the environment for a very long time.
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What are the problems with plastics in the sea?
They can be eaten by sea birds, fish and turtles. They cannot digest the plastic, so their guts get blocked. Wave action breaks some plastics down into fine granules. Small animals filter plastic granules from the water instead of their normal food.
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What are the problems with heavy metals?
Shiny paper from magazines and printed cardboard contains heavy metals. These accumulate in ecosystems. Heavy metals have been linked to birth defects in humans.
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What are the problems with dioxins?
Bleached paper, cardboard and certain plastics contain chlorine. Chemical called dioxins are made when these bleached products are burned with other waste. Exposure to dioxins is associated with cancer, birth defects and problems with immune system.
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What is bioaccumulation?
Build-up of chemicals in organisms as the chemicals travel through the food chain.
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What is an example of bioaccumulation?
A vole takes in a small amount of pesticide in its food The pesticide is stored in vole's body-it can't be broken down. When an owl eats a vole all the pesticide goes in. Eventually enough to make infertile or kill owl.
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How do heavy metals and dioxins bioaccumulate in humans?
Heavy metals and dioxins that are washed into rivers and the sea are concentrated in plankton, then fish and sea birds. If humans eat fish that have accumulated metals such as mercury, the levels can be high enough to cause concern.
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What is biomass?
Biomass is any biological substance we harvest, such as grass, crops, wood, fish and game.
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Why are ferilisers needed?
Agriculture involves removing biomass from fields. Therefore soil nutrients need to be replaced and to do this fertilisers are needed.
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How could agriculture become a closed-loop system?
Human faeces and urine would need to be returned to the fields as fertiliser.
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What are the risks associated with using human waste being used as fertilieser?
It risks introducing high levels of toxins into food crops by bioaccumulation. It could also transmit infectious diseases.
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What alternative ways could help make agriculture a closed-loop system?
Using other biodegradable organic wastes such as animal manure, unwanted food and plant waste can be used a fertilisers.
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What is eutrophication?
The build up of nutrients in water.
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Where do the nutrients that cause eutrophication come from?
Nutrients from non-organic fertilisers often wash off fields and into rivers and lakes. Faeces and uneaten food from fish farms also add nutrients to water.
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What do the added nutrients cause?
They cause algae to grow rapidly. The water goes green in an algae boom. The algae soon die and decay-bacteria, in the water. Bacteria take oxygen from water. The oxygen levels fall killing animals and aquatic plants that would normally add oxygen.
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Why are organic fertilisers and manure more sustainable?
They break down more slowly. Nutrients are released at the rate the crop can absorb them, so they do not get washed away in the rain,
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What other ways can agriculture be made more sustainable?
Crop rotation uses plants, such as clover, with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots. Leaving a field with a fallow crop of clover one every few years replenishes the soil with nitrogen compounds.
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What does biodiversity mean?
The great variet of living things, both within a species and between different species.
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What is intensive agriculture?
Farming with high inputs of fertiliser and pesticides and high productivity. In the long term it is unsustainable and a linear system.
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What is an example of intensive agriculture?
Calfornia's almonds. California produces 80% of the world's almonds. Lots of fertilisers have to be added as well as pesticides because pest insects and fungi have fe natural enemies in an almond crop and so spread quickly doing a lot of damage.
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What are the consequences of using pesticide in California's almonds?
The pesticides used kill pollinating insects, such as bees, in addition to the insect pests. This means that every year over a million bee hives are transported in to the Californian orchards. When they are finished the are moved to other crops.
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Why does setting quotas not solve all of the problems associated with overfishing?
Politicians want to protect jobs and please electors- set higher than recommended quotas. Fishing has to be monitored and policed. If too many are caught fish are often dumped. Fishing fleet move to unprotected areas. More deep-sea fishing- damage
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What other solutions are there to over fishing?
Fishing bans, such as the fishing ban for bluefin tuna, and fish farming (aquaculture), such as salmon farms.
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What are the problems with fish farming?
It is not sustainable. Food must be added and dirty water removed. This linear system can cause environmental damage. Overfishing anchovies to provide food for salmon and polluting the local environment are two of the problems.
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What might happen if a fishing ban is imposed too late?
Fish populations might not recover, other predators may move in and their position will have been taken. Newfoundland's cod fishery collapsed in 1992 and is still unfishable.
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What is desertification?
Turning to desert.
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What techniques have been developed in the Sahel to prevent desertification by reducing soil erosion?
Herds are moved from place to place to prevent overgrazing, Trees are not cut down in fragile areas. Acacia trees are planted as windbreaks. Thorny branches and rocks are used to reduce erosion in stream beds.
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What technique is used to make the soil fertile?
Hundreds of small pits are dug in the dry season. Compost is placed in the pits and covered with soil. Termites and fungi live in the compost and make the soil fertile. When the rains arrive, water drains into the pits, making a seedbed for crops.
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What is overgrazing?
Too many grazing animals, such as goats damaging the environment.
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What are some of the problems with the modern day Sahel region?
The rains have been better and people have been tempted to use intensive linear-system farming methods, using fertiliser and pesticides . Some of the traditional methods have been lost
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What is being done to help return the Sahel to a closed-loop system?
People are encouraged to plant native species as they are adapted to the dry conditions and to use better farming methods. Also using crop varieties could bring sustainable solutions.
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What are some of the tensions between conservation and the needs of local people?
For example in India, rapid economic development and a growing population are putting pressure on tiger reserves. Conserving ecosystems is beneficial to humans, as it protects the ecosystem services they provide.
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Why are tigers worth more dead?
Living tigers are undervalued and there is a huge market for dead tiger parts for traditional medicines.
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What does a good tiger population mean?
Tigers are at the top of the food chain and a good population means that the whole ecosystem is healthy.
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Why are tigers important?
They bring inspiration to many people. Tourists come to see them. Tiger reserves offer jobs to rangers and scientists. Without tigers fewer tourists would come, and the whole ecosystem would change.
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What does ethical mean?
Non-scientific, concerned with is what is right and wrong.
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What are primary forests?
A forest that has never been felled or logged.
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Why are forests being cut down?
They cut down forests for timber, to provide grassland for cattle, and to grow palm oil, soya, and biofuels.
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What does loss of forests cause?
It causes soil erosion, mud slides, silting of rivers, flash floods, loss of cloud cover, and drought. It also takes away a sustainable source of timber.
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What are the consequences of biomass being removed?
It changes the natural closed-loop system to a linear system. Nutrients are taken away with the biomass. If crops are grown fertilisers are needed.
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What does the sustainable use of timber mean?
It means replacing the trees and nutrients as quickly as they are taken away.
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What is eco-labelling?
An eco-label shows that the timber was harvested from a sustainably managed forest. When we buy food we can check the label to see where and how it was produced.
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What is a carbon sink?
A system taking carbon dioxide from the air and storing it, for example, a growing foret.
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What else to forests do?
It also helps to restore soils and clean water supplies, The forest creates jobs through leisure and tourism.
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What is cloud formation?
Evaporation of water, for example, from a forest, condensing into clouds.
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Why must we we move quickly into a post-oil economy?
Fossil fuels are running out and burning fossil fuels is increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosophere.
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Where does oil come from?
It comes from the dead bodies of minute plants and animals. They lived in the sea millions of years ago. They fell to the sea bed and were slowly covered by layers of sand and silt.Heat and pressure changed the dead biomass into oil.
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What is fossil sunlight energy?
Sunlight energy stored as chemical energy in fossil fuels.
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What is crude oil?
Oil straight from an oil well, not refined into petrol or diesel.
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What is energy needed for?
Ploughing and planting crops, making fertilisers and pesticides, food processing and transport and distribution of food.
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What does intensive farming cause?
It causes pollution, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and climate change. It is a take-make-dump, linear system.
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What are the pre-oil farming methods used in many parts of the world?
Fields are cultivated using horses or oxen. The animals energy comes from biomass and not from oil. The animals' faeces enrich the soil. Crops are harvested and separated using hand tools,. Food is produced and consumed locally.
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What are the problems with traditional methods?
They cannot produce enough food for the millions of people living in cities. Traditional methods also leave little time for other activities.
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What are the advantages of using biofuels?
Many plants make oil in their seeds. These can be harvested and turned into biofuel. Biofuel is made from crops and is carbon neutral. The same amount of carbon dioxide fixed in photosynthesis is released when the biofuel is burnt.
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What are the problems with biofuels?
Biofuels take land needed to produce food and forests, grasslands and other wild place are being lost to biofuel crops.
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Why must the conditions inside fermenters be carefully monitored and controlled?
Fast-growing microorganisms use up a lot of oxygen and nutrients and the produce toxic waste products and heat.
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What are the benefits of a fermenter?
Rapid reproduction, presence of plasmids simple biochemistry, lack of ethical concerns in their culture and the ability to make complex molecules?
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How is the presence of plasmids a benefit?
New genes can be introduced into the plasmids in the lab so the bacteria make what we want.
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How is the simple biochemistry a benefit?
The way that bacteria work is well understood, so the nutrients and growth conditions in a bioreactor can be controlled for optimum production.
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How is the lack of ethical concerns in their culture a benefit?
There are no animal welfare issues; many processes are similar to age-old brewing and any bacteria are usually removed from the final products.
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How is the ability to make complex molecules a benefit?
Bacteria can make complex antibodies, food additives, and hormones that can't be easily synthesised in the lab.
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What is an example of antibiotics being created in fermenters?
When the fungus Penicillium grows in a tank of nutrient solution, the antibiotic penicillin is secreted into the solution. It is easy to extract the antibiotic for use as a human medicine.
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Why are enzymes from microorganisms very important in food production?
They are used to control the flavour, aroma, texture, or rate of production for many f
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What is rennet?
It is an extract from calves' stomachs that helps young mammals digest their mother's milk. They cause milk to form sold lumps so it moves more slowly through the gut. It is used to make some kinds of cheese.
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How have scientists made 'vegetarian' cheese?
One of the enzymes in rennet is called chymosin. Scientists have developed strains of fungus that make chymosin. This can be used to make 'vegetarian' cheese.
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Other than cheese, what else are enzymes used for?
They are added to detergents to make 'bio' laundry liquids and powders. These enzymes digest the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the stains in our clothes. 'Bio' detergents often give good results at lower temperature.
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What is the enzyme being used to make biofuels?
Wood is made up of plant cells will cellulose walls. Tough fibres called lignin fill the spaces in the cell walls and make it hard to digest. Have developed a commercial way to make lignocellulase that breaks down lignin and cellulose.
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How does the enzyme used to make biofuels?
Lignocellulase can turn woody stalks and leaves into sugars, Ethanol can be produced using waste plant material instead of useful crops.
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Why can microorganisms be grown for food?
Some microorganisms produce proteins that are similar to the proteins in fish or soya beans. They can be grown on simple nutrients, and they can reproduce rapidly in the right conditions. This means they could be used as food.
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What is a food that can be grown from microorganisms?
Quorn(a single-celled protein) is made from a fungus that grows as a cluster of interwoven fungal threads. The threads are extracted from a fermenter, pressed together, and processed to match the taste and texture of meat.
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What are plasmids?
Small circle of DNA found in bacteria. Plasmids are not part of the bacterium's main chromosome.
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What is genetic modification?
Altering the characteristics of an organism by introducing the genes of another organism into its DNA.
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What is one example of genetic modification?
Many drugs used to treat illnesses are proteins. Before GM, insulin to treat diabetes was extracted from animals such as pigs, This worked but pig inslulin could produce harmful side effects. GM bacteria can be made to produce human insulin.
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What does genetic modification mean for plants?
GM means developers can *** new genes to plants. These genes code for new proteins to give the plant desired properties. They can be made resistant to some herbicides for example.
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What is a vector?
A method of transfer. Vectors are used to transfer genes from one organism to another.
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Why are plasmids used as vectors to modify bacteria?
Plasmids are easier to manipulate than a bacterial cell's main chromosome. They are small and they move easily in and out of celss.
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How to scientists make it easy to select genetically modified cells?
They put a second gene into the plasmid. For example, there is a gene in jellyfish that codes for a green fluorescent protein and several genes make bacteria resistant to particular antibodies.
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Why do scientists put a second gene in the plasmid?
It is because not all cells in a population of bacteria will take in the added plasmid and they want to be able to identify the ones with the plasmid in.
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What are the steps to produce human insulin from bacteria?
Isolate the gene and make copies of it. Make a modified plasmid that contains the gene and another gene that gives resistance to an antibiotic. Add the modified plasmid to a population of bacteria. Treat the population with the antibiotic.
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What does treating the bacteria with the particular antibiotic do?
The bacteria that survive must contain the plasmid, so they will also make insulin. The next step is to grow these modified bacteria and the harvest the insulin.
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What are bacteriophages?
They are viruses that can infect bacteria, Scientists use them as vectors to carry larger genes into bacterial cells.
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Why are nematode worms are problem?
They are microscopic worms that live in the soil. They attack the roots of crops, taking nutrients from the plant and laying their eggs inside the tissues. They can reduce the yield and if there is a large infestation kill most of the crop.
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What is the solutuion to the problems of the nematode worm?
Cystatins affeect insect digestion, so insects cannot eat parts such as their seeds. Researchers used the bacteria Agrobacterium as a vector to carry the extra cystatin gene into the plant's gentic material. It makes the roots indigestible.
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What are some of the arguements against introducing herbicide resistance gene into a plant?
Added genes could make 'safe' plants produce toxins or allergens. Marker genes for antibiotic resistance could be taken up by disease organisms. It will cost farmers more to buy seeds of GM crops, so food costs will increase.
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What are the counter arguments to intoroducing herbicide resistance gene into a plant?
Food-safeety organisations can check for these. The antibiotics are not used in medicine, so it wouldn't matter. Farmers may benefit from healthier crops and lower costs pf production
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What is a probe?
It is a short length of DNA that attaches itself to complementary sections of DNA.
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What is gel electrophoresis?
It is when fragments of DNA are placed in a gel with an electrical field across it.
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How does gel electrophoresis work?
Fragments move through the gel at different rates, according to their size. Fragments of the same size move together and form a band. Radioactive probes latched on to minisatellite sequences and showed the bands as dark lines on X-ray film.
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What is used instead of radioactove markers?
Safer fluorescent markers are used, which glow when stimulated by light. Computers interpret the patterns of bands in gels and produce a printout. Scientists no longer study and measure the gels directly.
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What is DNA profiling?
A DNA profile is produced in the same way as a DNA fingerprint, but fewer gene probes are used, DNA profiling is used in forensic science to test sample of DNA left at crime scenes.
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What are the first methods of genetic profiling?
DNA extracted from tissue sample. Double-stranded DNA in sample. DNA separated into single strands by gentle heating. Short sections of DNA with fluorescent markers are added-it is complementary to a target section n the original DNA.
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What are the next methods of genetic profiling?
Complementary DNA binds if it matches the target sequence. Short sections of DNA are copied by multiple rounds of PCR, PCR products are separated by gel electrophorsis and show up as fluorescent bands.
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What is the final step of genetic profiling/
A computer reads the gel and prints out a profil showing each band as a peak.
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What are the uses of genetic testing?
It can show family relationships between people. For example, it can show that a particular man is the father of a child. It is also used to identify human remains and can identify criminals.
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How is it used in relation to genetic disorders?
It is possible to find out if a gene in a DNA sample is a variant of the gene that is linked to the genetic disorder. This makes it possible to identify affected individuals or carriers of a disorder with a genetic component.
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How is DNA profiling used in zoos?
DNA profiling is used to find out how closely related animals are. This information is used to plan breeding programmes in zoos. It can also match individual animals to DNA from crime scenes or to identify ownership.
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What is a gene probe?
A short piece of single-stranded DNA used in genetic test. The gene probe has complementary bases to the allele that is being tested for.
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What does PCR stand for?
Polymerase chain reaction.
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What is PCR used in?
Forensic science when the amount of DNA found at crime scene is very small, to copy a gene for genetic modification, to make gene probes, to make many copies of a region of interest so that it can be studies further.
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What are some of the disadvantages of knowing your gentic profile?
It could be possible for employers and insurance companies to use genetic testing information to make decisions affecting people''s lives.
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What is nanotechnology?
Technology based on particles that are less than about 100nm in at least one dimension.
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What have manufactures recently developed?
Plastic with tiny particles of silver embedded in it. This can be used for making food storage boxes and film wraps for food. The silver particles reduce contamination of the food by microorganisms.
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What does some plastic food wrapping do?
It changes colour when antibodies in the film react with bacteria in the food, nanoparticles in the film react to changes in the amount of oxygen in the packet, which is a sign that the wrapping could be damaged and fruit ripens and releases gases.
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What can nano-sized particles of silver do?
They can be absorbed into animal cells, where nanosilver particles react with cell contents and releases silver ions. They are similar in size to sodium ions and disrupt normal cell activities.
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What are solutions of silver salts used for?
They can be used directly for their antibacterial effect (contain silver ions). But ions in silver salt solution react with other molecules before they can be absorbed,
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What are some of the risks of using nanotechnology?
They may behave in unexpected ways or be toxic to humans. For example, there have been concerns that silver in food packaging could leak out into landfill or into waterways and cause environmental damage.
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What does differentiated mean?
A differentiated cell has a specialised form suited to its function. It cannot change into another kind of cell.
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What are stem cells?
Unspecialised animal cells that can divide and develop into specialised cells.
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How are stem cells used to treat leukaemia?
Bone marrow transplants have been used. Bone marrow contains stem cells that divide and differentiate to make 8 different kinds of blood cell. The new bone can make healthy blood.
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What is tissue culture?
Stem cells are grown in a special growth solution containing proteins and sugars to stimulate growth, Skin culture produces a thin layer of skin cells that can be used as a skin graft to treat burned skin.
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How could stem cells be used to treat spinal injuries?
Potentially stem cells could be used to repair damaged spinal tissue, which could restore movement to people paralysed by spinal cord injuries.
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What else might stem cells be able to be used for in the furture?
It may be possible to repair brain damage, such as that caused by Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's. Stem cells could be used to treat some kinds of diabetes, particularly in young people. if the cells can develop in the pancreas to produce insulin.
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Where in our bodies are stem cells found?
There are stem cells in our skin, blood. and bone marrow.
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What is another source of stem cells?
Umbilical cord blood. Each baby born could provide some stem cells for research and future treatments. The many embryos left over from fertility treatments are another potential source of stem cells.
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What does the area of your heart called the pacemaker do?
It controls the muscle contractions, using electrical signals. This makes sure the heart muscle contracts in the right sequence and pace. It keeps your heart beating at a slow and steady pace when resting and at a higher rate when exercising.
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What happens when you have a heart attack?
Blood vessels providing the heart with oxygen and food get blocked. for example, by fatty deposits in their lining. Parts of the heart muscle receives no blood and the muscle tissue quickly dies.
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How is a heart valve replaced?
A surgeon connects the patient's blood supply to a heart-lung machine. Then the surgeon stops the heart, cuts it open and replaces the damaged valve.
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What is the main disadvantage of a tissue transplant?
The immune system causes rejection of the transplant. This happens because our immune system sees the new tissue as foreign, and attacks it as if it wee an invading bacteria or virus.
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What is an example of biomedical engineering?
You could use an artificial valve that has been engineered to do the job.
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What are the disadvantages of biomedical engineering of heart valves?
Cause damage to blood cells and make regular clicking noises as the valve closes.
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What must the materials for replacement body parts be lik?
They have to be resistant to wear and tear, made of materials that do not corrode in the body, and do not stimulate the body's rejection systems. This avoids patients having to have regular operations to replace worn out valves,
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What happens if your heart loses its natural rhythm?
It might feel strange or it might make exercise difficult.
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What can artificial pacemaker do?
It can monitor your heart rate and stimulate the muscle to contract in a regular rhythm.
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What work some scientists done relating to stem cells and the heart?
Used stem cells to develop muscle tissue in the laboratory, These muscle fibres contract and relax regularly, like a beating heart.
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What can the new developments involving stem cells lead to?
If cells can be encouraged to develop in the same way inside a heart, it might be possible to repair the damage caused by a heart attack. Clusters of these cells could be used as a natural pacemaker.
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Other cards in this set
How does exercise change bones?
Weight bearing exercises (jogging) stimulate bone growth increasing it's density. Inactivity makes bones less dense and weaker
What are the two types of joints?
What are ball-and-socket joints like?
What are hinge joints like?