Biology Unit 1 OCR Gateway Revision Cards.

Some questions summarising Unit 1 to be asked for revision.

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What factors determine the amount of each food gro

-age

-size

-exercise levels

-male/female

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Why do we need proteins? Name one disease steming

  • unlike fats and carbohydrates, protein cannot be stored.
  • meat proteins are called first-class proteins - amino acids that cant be made by the body.
  • plant proteins are called second-class proteins, as they contain some but not all amino acids needed by the human body.
  • kwashiokor, is a disease caused by lack of protein.
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What is EAR? What is the formula?

  • Estimated Average Requirement.
  • EAR in g= 0.6 x body mass in Kg
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Healthy diets are based in the context of.. (6)

  • proteins
  • carbohydrates (starch and sugars)
  • fats/oils
  • minerals and vitamins
  • fibre
  • water
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Carbohydrates. Why do we need to eat it, and where

  • Carbohydrates (made up of simple sugars) give us energy
  • Stored in the liver as glycogen or converted to fats
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Fat. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it sto

  • fat (made up of fatty acids and glycerol) gives us energy.
  • stored under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue.
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Proteins. Why do we need to eat it, and where is i

  • protein (made up of amino acids) are used for growth and repair, or alternatively it is used as energy rather than carbohydrates)
  • it is not stored.
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Iron. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it st

  • iron (a mineral) is needed to make haemoglobin.
  • it is not stored.
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Vitamin C. Why do we need to eat it, and where is

  • Vitamin C is needed to prevent scurvy.
  • it is not stored.
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Fibre. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it s

  • fibre is needed to prevent constipation.
  • it is not stored.
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Water. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it s

  • water (70% of cells), is used to prevent dehydration, replacing water lost in tears, urine and faeces.
  • it is not stored.
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What is a BMI? What is the formula?

  • BMI= weight (Kg) / height^2 (m^2)
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Name four special diets, and briefly eplain them.

  • vegetarian - do not eat meat and fish
  • vegan - does not eat any products of animal origin.
  • halal - meat has to be killed in a specific way.
  • jewish - does not eat pork.
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Name two problems with special diets.

  • vegetarian - lack of protein and vitamins, e.g. B1
  • vegan - same as above, and lack of calcium.
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Infectious diseases are caused by..

  • microorganisms which invade the body. These harmful bacteria are parasites which live in your body and gain nutrients.
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Non-Infection diseases are not caused by a microor

  • vitamin deficiency - lack of vitamin C.
  • mineral deficiency - lack of iron.
  • body disorders - diabetes, cancer.
  • genetic inheritance - colour blindness.
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What factors determine the amount of each food gro

-age

-size

-exercise levels

-male/female

17 of 125

Name four facts about cancer.

  • there are many types of cancer.
  • cancer cells keep dividing and creat an abnormal mass which is called a TUMOUR.
  • a tumour which spreads to other parts of the body is MALIGNANT.
  • a tumour which does not spread is BENIGN.
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What is EAR? What is the formula?

  • Estimated Average Requirement.
  • EAR in g= 0.6 x body mass in Kg
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Steps taken to reduce the risk of cancer (6)

  • protect against the sun
  • avoid eating too much fat and becoming overweight
  • avoid eating too much meat and unnatural foods
  • eat plently of fresh fruit and vegetables
  • take regular exercise
  • avoid too much alcohol.
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Healthy diets are based in the context of.. (6)

  • proteins
  • carbohydrates (starch and sugars)
  • fats/oils
  • minerals and vitamins
  • fibre
  • water
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What are pathogens?

  • pathogens are diseases caused by microorganisms.
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Carbohydrates. Why do we need to eat it, and where

  • Carbohydrates (made up of simple sugars) give us energy
  • Stored in the liver as glycogen or converted to fats
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Fat. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it sto

  • fat (made up of fatty acids and glycerol) gives us energy.
  • stored under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue.
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Proteins. Why do we need to eat it, and where is i

  • protein (made up of amino acids) are used for growth and repair, or alternatively it is used as energy rather than carbohydrates)
  • it is not stored.
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Iron. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it st

  • iron (a mineral) is needed to make haemoglobin.
  • it is not stored.
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Vitamin C. Why do we need to eat it, and where is

  • Vitamin C is needed to prevent scurvy.
  • it is not stored.
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Fibre. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it s

  • fibre is needed to prevent constipation.
  • it is not stored.
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Water. Why do we need to eat it, and where is it s

  • water (70% of cells), is used to prevent dehydration, replacing water lost in tears, urine and faeces.
  • it is not stored.
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What is a BMI? What is the formula?

  • BMI= weight (Kg) / height^2 (m^2)
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Name four special diets, and briefly eplain them.

  • vegetarian - do not eat meat and fish
  • vegan - does not eat any products of animal origin.
  • halal - meat has to be killed in a specific way.
  • jewish - does not eat pork.
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Name two problems with special diets.

  • vegetarian - lack of protein and vitamins, e.g. B1
  • vegan - same as above, and lack of calcium.
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Infectious diseases are caused by..

  • microorganisms which invade the body. These harmful bacteria are parasites which live in your body and gain nutrients.
33 of 125

Non-Infection diseases are not caused by a microor

  • vitamin deficiency - lack of vitamin C.
  • mineral deficiency - lack of iron.
  • body disorders - diabetes, cancer.
  • genetic inheritance - colour blindness.
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Name four facts about cancer.

  • there are many types of cancer.
  • cancer cells keep dividing and creat an abnormal mass which is called a TUMOUR.
  • a tumour which spreads to other parts of the body is MALIGNANT.
  • a tumour which does not spread is BENIGN.
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Steps taken to reduce the risk of cancer (6)

  • protect against the sun
  • avoid eating too much fat and becoming overweight
  • avoid eating too much meat and unnatural foods
  • eat plently of fresh fruit and vegetables
  • take regular exercise
  • avoid too much alcohol.
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What are pathogens?

  • pathogens are diseases caused by microorganisms.
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Bacteria have a..

  • cell wall. thousands of them can fit onto a single full stop. They can produce asexually.
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A virus can..

  • only be seen with a powerful microscope.
  • not reproduce on its own.
  • take over living cells in order to reproduce.
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A fungi can..

  • vary in size from microscopic to much larger organisms.
  • grow on skin and can make skin red and sore.
  • reproduce on their own.
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A protozoa is a..

  • microscopic single celled organism.
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Name four facts about cancer.

  • there are many types of cancer.
  • cancer cells keep dividing and creat an abnormal mass which is called a TUMOUR.
  • a tumour which spreads to other parts of the body is MALIGNANT.
  • a tumour which does not spread is BENIGN.
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Rubella. What is the microorganism causing the dis

  • virus.
  • red rash, swollen glands.
  • 2 weeks, can harm unborn children.
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Thrush. What is the microorganism causing the dise

  • Fungus
  • red sore skin, itchiness, white fungus can be seen
  • a few days (if treated immediately)
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Malaria. What is the microorganism causing the dis

  • protozoa.
  • fever, chills, enlarged spleen.
  • various times, depending on the success of the treatment, may persist for decades.
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How is malaria spread? What steps can be taken to

  • malaria is spread by a vector, female mosquitoes
  • steps to be taken are:
    • sleeping under mosquito nets
    • draining areas of stagnant wter
    • use of insecticides.
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What is the incidence of a disease? What factors d

  • the incidence of a disease is the rate at which new cases appear int he populatione each year.
  • dependants:
    • socio-economic factors (e.g. access to clean water)
    • climate
    • natural disasters
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Why do we feel unwell?

  • disease microorganisms can reproduce quickly inside you rbody, causing symptoms.
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Symptoms may be caused by..(2)

  • damage done to your cells when microoganisms reproduce.
  • poisons (toxins) made by the microorganisms.
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Antibiotics kill..

  • microorganisms
  • antibiotics kill bacteria, and bacteria ONLY.
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Antivirals kill..

  • microorganisms.
  • antivirals kill viruses, and viruses ONLY.
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Name some barriers stopping pathogens entering the

  • skin
  • tears
  • stomach acid
  • mucus in airways
  • blood clotting
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The immune system. Describe the two types of white

  • PHAGOCYTES which engulf the pathogens.
  • LYMPHOCYTES which produce antibodies or antitoxins.
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Give 3 examples of testing material when testing n

  • animals
  • human tissue
  • computer models
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Explain how the immune response to microbes, and h

  • the ANTIGENS are specific proteins on the cell surface of microbes, are detected by the WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
  • the LYMPHOCYTES produce specific antibodies carried in blod plasma.
  • the antibodies lock on to the antigens.
  • the antibodies stick to the antigens on the baacteria and make them clump together.
  • The PHAGOCYTES ingest and digest microbes to destroy them in a vacuole.
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people used to die from ______ such as tuberculosi

immunisation antibodies small recognise smallpox immunity inactive antigens white infections prevented antibodies recognised dead body blood

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Active immunisation is achieved by..

  • stimulating the body to produce it's own antibodies.
  • vaccinating people against particular diseases
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Diptheria. What is the microorganism causing the d

  • Bacterium.
  • Severe fever, can cause heart damage.
  • Few weeks, permanent damage.
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What is the difference between an epidemic, and a

  • an EPIDEMIC is international in COUNTRIES
  • a PANDEMIC is internation is CONTINENTS
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In clinical trials, what is a study?

  • a study, or clinical trial, is the routine but essential examination of how a new medicine is taken in and handled by the human body.
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Why are they conducted?(2)

  • for new medicines to test their efficiency and tolerancy.
  • for existing medicine, to look for improvements.
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Who is the sponsor in clinical trials?

  • the sponsor is the pharmaceutical companyw ith a new/existing product that they would like to test.
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What is the difference between blind and double bl

  • blind testing is where the volunteers do not know whether they are being given the real drug or the placebo.
  • double blind testing is where neither the volunteers and the doctor administering the drug knows which group is being given the real drug or the placebo.
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What is the benefit or blind/double blind testing?

  • It promotes randomisation, and ensures no bias.
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Give the uses of the following parts of eye: corne

  • CORNEA - refracts light
  • CONJUNCTIVA - membrane protects cornea.
  • IRIS - ring of muscle controlling amount of light entering the eye
  • PUPIL - opening in centre of iris
  • LENS - focuses light on retina
  • RETINA - contains light receptors
  • BLIND SPOT - no retina
  • OPTIC NERVE - carries the signals from the light receptors to the brain
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Accomodation. Humans can ______ on close and _____

focus lens same accomodation not shape distant

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The ring of ciliary muscle. What changes during cl

  • it contracts
  • it relaxes
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Suspensory ligaments. What changes during close vi

  • it slacken
  • it becomes taut
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Lens. What changes during close view accomodating?

  • it makes a rounded, flat shape.
  • it makes a flatter, thinner shape.
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Normal vision. A person with _____ vision is able

normal ooints comfortably near focus infinity far 18

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Short Sight. Someone with short sight can see ____

distant distance focus retina elongated great close concave

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Long sight. Someone with long sight can see ______

lens elasticity onto near loss convex retina lens

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Binocular vision. Animals with eyes facing _______

 focus binocular forward distance eyes accurately same allows

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Monocular vision. Animals with ______ on the _____

run eyes wider predators cannot monocular view side distances field

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what are the 6 aspects to fitness?

  • stamina
  • strength
  • flexibility
  • agility
  • speed
  • cardiovascular efficiency
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Passie immune systems means..

  • being injected with antibodies in a lab.
  • this may be useful to treat an infection which may kill you quickly.
  • passive immunity does not last long, unlike active imunity.
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what is the definition of a disease?

  • a disease is a condition caused by any part of the body not functioning properly.
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finish the sentence. You are at a greater risk of

  • smoke
  • have high blood pressure
  • eat too much salt
  • eat too much saturated fat
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finish the sentence. Blood pressure is the..

  • measurement of force applied to artery walls.
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finish the sentence. Blood is under pressure due t

  • contraction of the heart muscles so it can reach all parts of the body.
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what is the systolic?

  • the first number reading.
  • it is the HIGHEST level your blood pressure reaches when your heart beats.
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what is the diastolic?

  • the second number in the reading
  • it is the LOWEST your blood pressure reaches as your heart relaxes between beats
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What is the normal range of blood pressure for som

  • 120/80 mm Hg
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what 7 factor affect blood pressure?

  • age
  • salt
  • exercise
  • obesity
  • alcohol intake
  • stress
  • smoking
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what happens to your heart rate when you smoke?

  • smoking produces carbon monoxide which is inhaled. This decreases the oxygen-carrying capacity in the haemoglobin in the red blood cells, and the heart rate increases to compensate.
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What happens to your heart rate if you are obese o

  • saturated fats in food lead to a build up of cholesterol in artery walls. This narrows the arteries and restricts the blood flow through the restricted artery.
  • deposits of cholesterol can lead to a thrombosis, and if a piece breaks off in the ehart, it causes a heart attack. In the brain, it may cause a stroke.
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Other effects of high blood pressure include..(2)

  • weak blood vessels to burst - causes stroke if it happens in the brain
  • damages organs such as kidneys
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Low blood pressure can lead to.. (2)

  • poor circulation
  • fainting
  • if the brain does not get enough oxygenated blood.
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What is red-green colourblindess, and what do they

  • this is an inherited condition which means that a person cannot distinquish between red and green.
  • this is because they dont have specialized cells in thir retina that they need to do this.
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What are the two main parts that the nervous syste

  • CNS (central nervous system) - the brain and the spinal chord
  • Peripheral nervous system.
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The nervous system detects _____, such as ________

body stimuli pressure response light temperature sounds pain

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The CNS coodinates the information.

  • the nervous system sorts out information from the senses and sends messages to those muscle glands with the appropriate response we respong to light, sound, chemicals in mouth, pressure, temperature.
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What is the receptor?

  • Receptors (sensory neurons) detect changes in the environment called stimuli and send messages (nerve impulses) along nerves to brain and spinal cord (CNS)
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What is an effector?

  • an effector is any part of the body that produces the response.
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Give 3 examples of effectors in the body.

  • a muscle contracts to move arm
  • a muscle squeezing saliva from the salivary gland
  • a gland releasing a hormone into the blood
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What are nerve fibres?

  • nerve fibres are burndles of nerve cells (neurons) that pass on electrical signals (impulses) to the brain.
  • from the brain, nerve fibres send impulses to effectors.
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What does a motor neurone look like?

(http://ts4.mm.bing.net/images/thumbnail.aspx?q=4882566582044779&id=231d8b735350020a826d8557692c3688&url=http%3a%2f%2fmedicalpicturesinfo.com%2fwp-content%2fuploads%2f2011%2f09%2fNeuron-4.png)

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what is the definition of health?

  • good health is being free from disease
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Name the 3 types of neurone, and what they do.

  • sensory neurone - carries impulses from the receptor to the spinal cords
  • relay neurone - carries to and from the spinal cord and the brain
  • motor neurone - carries impulses from the brain to the effector.
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What is a reflex?

  • automatic responses to stimulii are called reflexactions
  • a reflex response is rapid and its function is protection
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What happens during a reflexaction?

  • the spinal cord mediates reflex responses to some sensory impulses directly, i.e. without going to the brain. The messages pass through the reflex arc.
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thenerves involved in _________ ___________ form a

  • muscle impulses CNS effector reflex action synapse motor neurone pain relay stimulus
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What is a drug?

  • a chemical substance that affects the way that your body or brain works
  • drugs may alter behaviour as well as metabolism.
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What are medicinal drugs?

  • cure illness or relieve symptoms. Theya re beneficial and some need to be prescribed by a doctor because they might have side effects, interfering with patients' other meds or conditions.
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What are recreational drugs?

  • some drugs are legal and taken for pleasure, e.g. nicotine, alcohol and caffeine.
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What are illegal drugs?

  • some people take illegal drugs for recreation but they are harmful and can cause long term damage. Examples are cannabis, anabolic steroids and LSD.
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Give 5 examples of medicinal drugs.

  • paracetamol
  • anitbiotic
  • ibuprofen
  • morphine
  • zantac
  • ritalin
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give 3 examples of recreational drugs.

  • alcohol
  • caffeine
  • nicotine
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Give 5 examples of illegal drugs.

  • ecstasy
  • cannabis
  • cocain
  • heroin
  • LSD
  • anabolic steroids
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Give 3 properties of drugs.

  • drugs alter body chemistry and your body may become tolerant to them
  • when your body wont work without them, you are addicted
  • if you stop taking them you may suffer withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating, hallucinations, etc
  • rehabilitation, people may go into hospital to kick their habit
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What do stimulants do?

  • stimulants increase the relsease of chemicals across the synapse.
    • increased alertness
    • gives you faster reaction time
    • raised heart rate and blood pressure
    • reduced appetite
  • e.g. caffeine, cocaine, ecstasy
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What do depressants do?

  • depressants slow down the release of chemicals across the synapse.
    • makes you feel relaxed and more sociable
  • e.g. alcohol, cannabis
  • some depressants such as heroin also reduce pain
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What do painkillers do?

  • painkillers block the release of chemicals across the synapse
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What do performance enhancers do?

  • they are used to increase performance of athletes which may give them an unfair advantage over other competitors as well as putting their health at risk
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What are the 3 classes of illegal drug?

  • some drugs ar more harmful than others and the government has introduced as system of CLASSIFICATION.
  • class A - then most dangerous with heaviest penalties
  • class B-
  • class C - the least dangerous with lightest penalties
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What happens to your body on a hot day?(3)

  • vasodilation of blood vessels - capillaries get wider so a larger amount of blood can flow near the skin surface
  • evaporation of sweat - sweat is produced from the sweat glands. sweat evaporates from the skin.
  • hairs and hair erector muscles are relaxed.
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What happens to the body on a cold day?(4)

  • vasoconstriction of blood vessels - capillaries get smaller so a larger amount of blood can flow near the skin surface. Heat is kept near to the body.
  • no sweat is produced
  • body starts to shiver to generate body heat
  • hairs and hair erector muscles stand on end to trap a layer of air
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What is homeostasis?

  • in order to work properly the human body needs to keep internal conditions as constant as possible.
  • conditions that need to be kept constant, including body temperature, water balance, and carbon dioxide levels in blood.
  • this process is called HOMEOSTASIS
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What temperature does the human body work best at?

  • 37 degC
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finish the sentence. if your blood starts to get t

  • your brain detects this and switches on mechanisms to cool the blood down.
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finish the sentence. if your blood starts to get t

  • your brain detects this and sitches on mechanism to heat you up
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What are these changes controlled by?

  • the HYPOTHALAMUS
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What is sweating, and why do we do it?

  • produced in the sweat glands
  • when sweat evaporates from your body, to turn the liquid to a gas, it takes heat energy from yoru body.
  • this cools you down
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What is the synapse?

  • gaps between neurones are called synapse.
  • electrical impulses cannot cross these
  • neurotransmitters, whcih are chemicals are released by one neurone and diffuse across the gap and cause an impulse in the next neurone.
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What are the dangers of too high/too low a tempera

  • it is dangerous if your body temperature goes above 40degC or below 35degC
  • about 40degC you will get heat stroke and dehydration. If this is not treated you may die.
  • below 35degC your body develops hypothermia and if not treated, this also leads to death
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