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GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND DNA
The cell NUCLEUS contains GENETIC MATERIAL
Genetic material is arranged into CHROMOSOMES
A human cell contains 23 pairs of CHROMOSOMES
Each chromosome is ONE LONG COIL of DNA
A GENE is one short length of a CHROMOSOME…read more

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GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND DNA
GENES are INSTRUCTIONS for cells
They INSTRUCT cells inside our bodies to create specific PROTEINS
Different cells create different PROTEINS depending upon their function
Different people create DIFFERENT proteins this is how we develop
different CHARACTERISTICS
Proteins can be STRUCTURAL; these are parts of skin, hair blood and the
cytoplasm of our cells. E.g. COLLAGEN is a protein found in bones and
tendons
Or they can be FUNCTIONAL; these perform a specific job. For example, an
enzyme named AMYLASE breaks down starch to maltose in the stomach…read more

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GENOTYPE OR PHENOTYPE
Genotype ­ The genes which an organism has, and the
characteristics which are displayed WITHIN ITS
GENES
Phenotype ­ The PHYSICALLY SHOWN
characteristics, as decided on by a person's genotype…read more

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GENES AND VARIATION
Each sex cell has half the number of chromosomes as a usual human cell.
Each cell only has 23 single chromosomes rather than the usual 23 pairs.
Therefore, we inherit half of our chromosomes from each parent, to make 23
pairs.
Each gene is found in the same place on each chromosome
Different versions of each gene are called alleles
Therefore we can inherit characteristics of our parents as some of their own
genetic material is randomly shuffled into the sex cells.
This is why we also sometimes look slightly like grandparents as our parents
inherited characteristics from them, which we then inherited from our parents.…read more

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DOMINANT OR RECESSIVE
An allele can be dominant or recessive.
If a characteristic is dominant it is the one which is show. An example of this
is the allele for the genetic disease; `Huntington's Disease'. It is always the
characteristic which is shown in the pair of alleles if it is present.
A recessive allele is the characteristic in the phenotype which isn't shown
unless both alleles are recessive. This means that if a dominant allele is also
present, this will not be shown. An example of this is Cystic Fibrosis.
It can be carried in a persons' genes and will not be the phenotype if a
dominant allele is present however can be inherited by the child.…read more

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