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OCR Gateway Triple Science
B5 Revision…read more

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B5a - In Good Shape
Internal Skeletons External Skeletons
Humans have internal skeletons. Internal Most insects have an external skeleton,
skeletons are better than external which means that their skeleton is on the
skeletons because ­ outside of their body.
· it forms framework for the body. · it protects the creature.
· it grows with the body. · it doesn't grow with the rest of the
· muscles are easily attached and joints body, therefore creature becomes
have flexibility. trapped inside.
· made of living tissue such as bone and · skeletons are shed and new ones are
blood cells. grown, in this time; the animal becomes
more vulnerable to predator attacks.
Long bones are hollow (arms and legs),
therefore they are stronger and less Internals skeletons are far better to
likely to break than if they were solid. have than an external skeleton overall.
They have a main shaft with bone
marrow inside that contains blood
vessels. At each end is the head, which
covers the cartilage.…read more

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B5a- In Good Shape
Moving someone with a suspected broken bone is dangerous. Nerves can be damaged,
which if their spine is broken; can result in paralysis.
Microorganisms can infect broken bones or damaged cartilage. However, bone and
cartilage can quickly repair themselves.
Before humans are born, their bones are all made of cartilage. As we grow, calcium and
phosphorus are deposited in the bones making them hard. This process is called
ossification. The amount of cartilage still present can be used to determine age of
For example ­
· if historians dig up a body and they would like to find out the date in which they were
born and the year the died and how old they were when they died. They will use different
sorts of tests to research how much cartilage is left within the bone. The less cartilage
present in the bone, the older the person is.…read more

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Synovial fluid in joints
B5a- In Good Shape absorbs shock and acts
as a lubricant on bones.
Bones, Joints and Levers
Ball and Socket Joint
Cartilage also helps to
The hip is a ball and absorb shock.
socket joint. It is a Ligaments connect
synovial joint because it bones preventing
contains synovial fluid. dislocations.…read more

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Artificial knee and
hip replacements
B5a- In Good Shape are now common
Bones, Joints and Levers operations that
enable patients to
Hinge Joint enjoy active, pain
free lives. But there
bone is a danger of
rejection or
cartilage infection.
The knee is a hinge joint. Any movement is an
It is a synovial joint example of a lever.
because it contains The elbow acts as a
synovial fluid. pivot.…read more

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B5b ­ The Vital Pump
The high blood
The heart has four chambers - pressure in arteries is
As blood flows from caused by the heart
arteries, through muscles contracting to
arterioles, capillaries force blood around the
and veins; pressure body.
Main blood vessels in
the heart are: aorta,
vena cave, pulmonary
artery and pulmonary
Humans have a double vein.
circulatory system,
heart to lungs and
from heart to the rest Fish have a single
of the body. circulatory system.
The blood goes round
the body in a single
circuit.…read more

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