organic chemistry

what is a Hydrocarbon
is a compound containing hydrogen and carbon only
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what does saturated mean
contain single carbon-carbon bonds only
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what does unsaturated mean
contains a carbon=carbon double bond
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what is the molecular formula
the formula which shows the actual number of each type of atom
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what is the empirical formula
shows the simplest ratio of atoms of each type of element in a compound
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what is the general formula
the algebraic formula for a homologous series
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what is the displayed structural detail
shows the actual position arrangement of each type of atom in a compound
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Displayed formula
show all the covalent bonds and atoms in a molecule
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what is the suffix of an alcohol
-ol
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what is the prefix of a halogenalkane
chloro,flouro,bromo,iodo
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what is the suffix of a aldehyde
-al
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what is the suffix for carboxylic acids
-oic acid
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what is the suffix for ketones
-one
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what is the suffix for an ester
-yl -oate
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general rule for naming organic compounds
count the longest chain, then look at the root eg has the compound got 3 carbon atoms,4,5 then look at then add the appropriate prefix so if its CH3 is will be methyl
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what happens if there are two or more functional groups in your organic compound
Put tri or di in front of the prefix do not remove the -e from your functional group
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How do you number the functional group
by counting from the end of the molecule which is closest to the functional group
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Why may some alkenes have an E or a Z in them
to show the position of the stereoisomerism
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what does the E and Z mean
E means cis so the two functional groups are on opposite sides and Z means trans which means the functional groups are same side
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if two functional groups are together what do you put in front of the suffix
-di
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what is a chain isomer
It is an isomer with the same molecular formula but different carbon skeleton
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what is a positional isomer
It is an isomer with the same isomer but the functional group is position differently
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what is a functional isomer
it is an isomer with a different functional group
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what are stereoisomerisms
They have the same structural formula but a different spatial arrangement of atoms
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E-Z isomers exist because...
of restricted rotation at the carbon=carbon double bond
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what is the priority group
it is the element with the largest atomic number
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if the priority group is on the same side what is it
it is labelled Z
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if the priority group is on opposite side what is it labelled as
labelled as E
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what are the Cahn-ingold priority rules
Compare atoms on either side of the double bond atom with the highest atomic number is given priority if the atoms are the same then make a list of the atoms opposite the double bond and arrange in decreasing atomic number
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What are the basic rules for naming functional groups
the functional group is named by the prefix or suffix eg bromoethane,ethanol,if the suffix starts with a vowel remove the -e from the stem alkane propan-1-ol if the suffix starts with a consonant do not remove the -e
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why may alkenes start with an e or z
to show the type of stereoisomerism
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if there is more than one double bond what happens to the suffix
it ends with diene or triene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

contain single carbon-carbon bonds only

Back

what does saturated mean

Card 3

Front

contains a carbon=carbon double bond

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the formula which shows the actual number of each type of atom

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

shows the simplest ratio of atoms of each type of element in a compound

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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