Chemistry

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  • Created by: maiwand
  • Created on: 11-04-13 19:40
General formula
is the simplest algebraic formula to represent any member of a homologous series
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structural formula
gives minimal detail to show how the atoms are arranged in a molecule
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displayed formula
gives the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them
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skeletal formula
is the simplest organic formula with carbon atoms shown a skeleton and all the hydrogen atoms of the alkyl chains removed except for those of functional groups
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homologous series
is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but each successive member differing by ch2
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functional group
is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reaction
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structural isomers
are molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural arrangements of atoms
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sterioisomers
are compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different arrangement of atoms in space
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E/Z isomerism
is a type of stereoisomerism > a molecule must satify two critera to have E/Z isomerism ....1>a carbon-carbon double bond must be present ...2> each carbon in the double bond must be attached to two different groups
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cis-trans isomerism
is a special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent groups are the same...>cis>Z is isomer .....>trans>is the E isomer
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crude oil
is a source of hydrocarbons, seperated as fractions with different boiling points by fractional distilation, which can be used as fuels or for processing into petrochemicals
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fractional distilation
is the seperation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating coloumn
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Effect of chain length
as the chain length increases, the boiling point increases because the inter molecula forces between the molecules get stronger. in a longer-chained alkane, there are more points of contact betwen the molecules leading to more vanderwals forces betwe
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effect of branching
a branched isomer has a lower boiling point than the unbranched isomer. in a branched alkane, there are fewer points of contract between molecules,leading to more vanderwaal forces between the molecules.also branched cant get close decrese interforce
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cracking
is used to break down long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes and alkenes. A catalyst is used to speed up the reaction\/\/\/\/\/\--C12H26-dodecane>>\/\/\/\/\C10H22-decane+\\C2H4-ethene
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uses of crude oil
> liquid petroleum gas (LPG)-heating. camping gas,making chemicals and barbecues >kerosene-fuel for planes >residual fuel oil-Powing factories, fueling large and electricity >bitumen-to make roads
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atomospheric pollutants
Co-a toxic gas formed by incomplete combusions in the internal combustion engine >co2- a major contributor to global warming via the greenhouse effect > No2-contributors to acid rain and destructions of forest >S02-a contributor to acid rain
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physical properties
physical properties of alcohols are influenced by their ability to form hydrogen bonds between the O-H groups of neighbouring molecules
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voltility
is the case that a liquid turns into gas. volility increases as boiling pooint decreases > as the chain length increases the number of hydrogen bonds decrease there the boiling point increases which results in the votility decreaseing
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esterfication
is the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
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dehydration
is an elimination reaction in which water is removed from a saturated molecules to make an unsaturated molecules. acid catalyst=h2so4
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

structural formula

Back

gives minimal detail to show how the atoms are arranged in a molecule

Card 3

Front

displayed formula

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

skeletal formula

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

homologous series

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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