OCR GCSE Psychology Unit 2 - Non-Verbal Communication

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  • Created by: Maz
  • Created on: 04-06-13 13:40
What is non-verbal communication?
The process of communicating with others by sending and receiving wordless messages. It involves many forms of body movement but excludes the spoken word. Can be conscious or unconscious.
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What is body language?
communicating something physically through our body eg. body movement, gesures and posture.
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What is a gesture?
A body signal that sends a visual message to someone. It's not important about what we think the signal means but the message it actually says.
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Give an example of a gesture.
A "thumbs up" (emblem) or illustrating the size of an object using your hands (ionic).
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What is posture?
Communicating feelings by our stance.
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Give an example of posture.
Slouching to convey boredom.
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What is a facial expression?
Communicating something through the movements of muscles in the face.
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There are only about 5 facial expressions that can be reliably identified. What are they?
Surprise, fear, anger, disgust and sadness.
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What is the core theory of NVC?
Social learning theory.
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What does the social learning theory (SLT) of NVC state?
That NVC is learnt from models who we observe.
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What happens if we observe models who display good use of NVC (according to this theory)?
We will also use good NVC.
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What happens if we observe and imitate models who use inappropriate non-verbal behaviour (NVB)?
We may struggle with social interaction.
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What is vicarious reinforcement in terms of NVC?
If we see positive NVB being reinforced, we will be vicariously reinforced and so we will be more likely to imitate the positive NVB used.
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Give an example of positive NVB we may see being reinforced?
The recipient smiling at the model.
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How is positive NVB reinforced?
The recipient may respond faster to what you have said, meaning that you feel like your communication is being understood.
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What is vicarious punishment in terms of NVC?
When inappropriate NVB is vicariously punished the person using the inappropriate NVB will be vicariously punished, making imitation of poor NVB less likely.
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How is poor NVB punished?
By making it difficult to make friends. If you see a recipient not smile at the talker and the talker walks away, you will be less likely to not smile as you wouldn't want someone to walk away from you mid-conversation.
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How do cultural variations in NVC support the idea that we learn culture-specific behaviour?
If NVC wasn't culture-specific, we would all behave in the same way, which isn't the case. We imitate behaviour we observe from models within our culture so NVC is culture-specific.
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Give an example of culture-specific NVB.
French people greet with kisses on the cheeks.
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What are 3 limitations of the social learning theory of NVC?
It suggests people can learn new NVB. However, efforts to teach offenders more appropriate NVB tend not to work. It struggles to explain when certain examples of NVC may persist even when punished. It ignores the idea that we are born with NVC skills
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What is the alternative theory of NVC?
Evolutionary theory.
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What does this theory state?
That NVC has evolved as it benefits survival and reproduction. Good NVC has been passed on biologically because those with good NVC were more likely to survive and reproduce.
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How does NVC benefit survival?
Helps to reduce conflict/threat. By avoiding eye contact in an argument, it shows a sign of backing down, suggesting you want to avoid confrontation. Other egs: warding off enemies (gritting teeth)+co-operation (touching to reassure).
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How does NVC benefit redproduction?
It allows people to court each other. Eyes widen as a sign of finding someone attractive, showing specific interest in the other person. Other egs: communication in a relationship (using gestures as a sign of concern /support).
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How do universialities support the evolutionary theory?
We interpret similar things in a similar way.
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What is the core study into NVC?
Yuki et al.
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What was the aim of Yuki et al?
To test whether interpretation of facial expression is due to culture and socialisation.
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What kind of study was Yuki et al?
Cross-cultural study.
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What were the different groups of participants and how many participants were used?
95 Japanese and 118 American participants.
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What sampling technique was used in Yuki et al's study?
A volunteer sample.
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What were the different kinds of emoticons used in Yuki et al's study?
6 emoticons were used with different combinations of sad/neutral/happy eyes and mouths.
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The participants had to fill out a questionnaire in regards to how happy the emoticons looked. What was the scale used and how did it order (most to least happy)?
A likert scale between 1 and 9 with 9 being the happiest.
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What emoticons did American participants rate as the happiest?
When the mouth was happy (even if the eye were sad).
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What emoticons did American participants give the lowest ratings to?
Emoticons with a sad mouth (even when the eyes were neutral/happy).
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What emoticons did Japanese participants give the highest ratings to?
The emoticons with happy eyes. This was especially true when mouths were sad.
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What emoticons did Japanese participants give the lowest ratings to?
The emoticons with sad eyes (and a neutral mouth).
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What did Yuki et al conclude?
That Japanese and American people interpret facial expressions differently. Japanese people pay more attention to eyes whereas American people pay more attention to mouths (when determining emotions). They suggested this was due to socialisation.
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What are 3 evaluative points for Yuki et al's study?
It lacks ecological validity (emoticons), the sample was unrepresentative (only students were used) and recognising emotions is a complex process which is difficult to express on something as simple as a likert scale.
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What is the application of NVC?
Social skills training.
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What theory is social skills training based on?
Social learning theory.
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What are the 4 main mechanisms used in social skills training?
Modelling, practise, feedback and homework.
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What is modelling in terms of social skills training?
When there trainer demonstrates the correct NVB, eg using good eye contact as the client watches.
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What is practise in terms of social skills training?
Where the client is invited to imitate the model. Roleplay is sometimes used to build up desired behaviour.
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What is feedback in terms of social skills training?
The trainer comments on the client's practise performance, somtimes using a video of the practise behaviour. Good social skills are reinforced.
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What is homework in terms of social skills training?
Homework are tasks between sessions where the person receiving the training transfers their newly acquired skills to real-life and reports back to the trainer.
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In what areas of society does social skills training benefit?
The rehabilitation of offenders, in the police force and in customer service jobs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is body language?

Back

communicating something physically through our body eg. body movement, gesures and posture.

Card 3

Front

What is a gesture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of a gesture.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is posture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

MrsMacLean

Wow - 46 fantastic cards which can be used with a crossword and quizsearch!

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