Psychology OCR GCSE Unit 1

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OCR psychology GCSE

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Psychology
Memory
Key concepts
Information processing =
Input Encoding Storage Retrieval Output
1. Hearing or seeing something
2. Converts it to something you can remember
3. Put into memory
4. Remembering
5. Saying
Accessibility = Problems associated with retrieving information in storage.
Availability = Problems with information no longer being stored.
Core theory
Multistore model of memory
Information comes into senses and is held in sensory memory. If attention is paid it will go into
the shortterm memory. From here it will either be lost (decay), rehearsed then transferred into
longterm memory or go straight into longterm memory.
Sensory input ­ Sensory memory ­ shortterm memory ­
longterm memory.
For it to go into the LTM it must be rehearsed.
Memories can be forgotten if not rehearsed from the short term memory and long term memory.
Input = information would go into the sensory memory store.
Encoding = if you pay attention to it, then it can enter shortterm memory.
Storage = if this information is then rehearsed then it can be transferred into long term memory.
The different stores
Sensory store = holds all the information around us, but only for a few seconds.
Capacity = how much information the store can hold.
Duration = how long the memory store holds the information for.

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Short term memory = limited capacity and limited duration, information is not held for very long
in this store, very soon decays or displaced, to keep STM you have to rehearse it, if rehearsed
for 30 seconds it should be stored.
7+/2 chunks of information, duration is between 10 and 20 seconds.
Long term memory = has an unlimited capacity and a unlimited duration. This means once a
memory is in there it is supposedly there forever.…read more

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Independent variables = what the experiment changes in the experiment.
Dependant variables = What we measure in an experiment.
What he did
Carried out a lab experiment that supports the multistore model of memory.
Aim: To show that a person's memory is affected by factors such as time and space.
He showed people a series of adverts that were around 10 months old, each for a different
product. Each advert was no more than 10 seconds long and presented in a group of 15.…read more

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Jokes or strange association
"Chunking" information
"Method of loci"
Attachment
Key concepts
Attachment = known as bonding. Strong and lasting tie to each other to significant other. Care
giver and child.
Separation protest = upset when moved from attachment.
Stranger anxiety = anxious/ scared around unfamiliar people.
Secure = having a relationship based on trust and security. Child wishes to interact with care
giver.
Insecure avoidant = child is quite independent of care giver.…read more

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Alternative theory
Behaviourist theory ­ attachment relies on learning and experience
Attachment is a two way process. The child and the care giver learn to bond with each other
because the both benefit from the relationship.
Reinforcement is when you reward for doing something good and punish for doing something
bad.
Reinforcements from adults
Money
Food
Presents
Attention
Safety
Comfort
Reinforcements from babies
Gazing at them
Smiling
Cooing
Crying
Parents of securely attached children =
Sensitive to their child's needs.…read more

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Results = The first measure showed the distribution of people's attachment types. As expected,
most people reported secure attachment types in childhood. Attachments affect adult
relationships.
Adults with secure infant attachments had happy, friendly relationships. They were also more
accepting and supportive of their partners despite faults. They were the least likely to divorce out
of the three groups.
Adults with avoidant infant attachments were afraid of intimacy. They also experienced more
highs and lows in their relationships, and were prone to jealousy.…read more

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Obedience
Key concepts
Obedience = following orders or commands from people in authority.
Defiance = resisting orders or commands from people in authority, this is a deliberate decision,
sometimes called resistance.
Denial of responsibility = although defiance is common, obedience is the norm, but this isn't a
bad thing ­ obedience is bad when people say it's not my fault ­ they told me to do it.
Authority = a level of status or power.
Agentic state = working as somebody else's agent.…read more

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Adorno developed the `F ­ scale' in order to assess whether or not people had authoritarian
personality. E.g. people strongly believe in authority figures and obedience.
Core study ­ Bickman (1974)
Procedure = Bickman carried out a field experience into obedience in which he manipulated the
appearance of 3 male experiments who gave orders to 153 randomly occurring pedestrians on a
street in Brooklyn.…read more

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Atypical behaviour
Key concepts
Typical behaviour = a behaviour which is considered normal, usually because it applies to the
majority of people.
Atypical behaviour = a behaviour which is considered abnormal usually because it applies to the
minority of people.
Avoidance = true phobias also include, this is when the fear really starts to impact on everyday
life.
Phobia = an example of atypical behaviour related to fear. They are intense, persistent and
irrational fear of objects, contexts or activities.…read more

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Classical conditioning = also known as learning through association, and when people learn to
associate a particular response with a particular stimulus.
Unconditioned response = triggered by an unconditioned stimulus, there are objects and events
that naturally cause this reaction
Unconditioned response = urc
Unconditioned stimuli = ucs
Neutral stimulus = ns
Conditioned stimulus = cs
Conditioned response = cr
Cs = you trigger a learnt response.
Cr = response does not change i.e. feeling of anxiety but if it is a response to cs.…read more

Comments

Lydia

This was REALLY useful when I was revising and made everything make sense :) 

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