OCR AS PE skeletal and muscular system

  • Created by: Trudy
  • Created on: 20-05-13 20:48
what is a tendon
connective tissue joining muscle to bone
1 of 46
what is the growth plate
plate of cartilidge between the diaphysis and epiphysis that allows bone to grow in length
2 of 46
what is collagen
a protein which forms a structural framework in many parts of body e.g. skin
3 of 46
what is osteoprosis
skeletal disorder charcterised by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to and increased risk of fracture
4 of 46
what is osteoarthritis
type of arthritis caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartiladge of one or more joints
5 of 46
why is the hip joint more stable than the shoulder?
deeper socket, head of femur is very spherical, supported by 5 ligaments and surrounded by large muscle groups
6 of 46
name 8 joint features
joint capsule, articular discs of cartilage, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, articular cartilage, bursa, ligaments, pads of fat
7 of 46
point of attachment of a muscle to bone, where the bone is stationary during muscular contraction
8 of 46
point of attachment of a muscle to bone, where the bone moves during muscular contraction
9 of 46
muscle that is directly responsible for the movement at a given joint
10 of 46
muscle that works in conjunction with an agonist. as the agonist contracts the antagonist lengthens and returns to its original length
11 of 46
name the 5 types of joints
condyloid, hinge, pivot, ball and socket, gliding
12 of 46
wrist-joint type
13 of 46
articulating bones - wrist
radius ulna and carpels
14 of 46
movement and muscles- wrist
flexion (wrist flexors), extension (wrist extensors), abduction and adduction
15 of 46
Elbow- joint type
16 of 46
articulating bones- elbow
radius, ulna and humerus
17 of 46
movement and muscle- elbow
flexion (biceps brachii) extension (triceps brachii)
18 of 46
radio-ulnar- joint type
19 of 46
articulating bones- radio-ulnar
radius and ulnar
20 of 46
movement and muscles- radio-ulnar
pronation (pronator teres), supination (supinator muscle)
21 of 46
shoulder- joint type
ball and socket
22 of 46
articulating bones - shoulder
glenoid fossa of the scapula and head of the humerous
23 of 46
movement and muscles- shoulder
flexion (anterior deltoid), extension (latissmus dorsi), abduction (middle deltoid and supraspinatus), adduction (teres major), inward rotation (subcapularis), outward rotation (infraspinatus), horizontalflexion horizontal extension
24 of 46
muscles of horizontal flexion and extension at the shoulder
flexion- pectorallis major, extenstion-teres major
25 of 46
spine- joint type
gliding, cartilaginous, pivot
26 of 46
articulating bones- spine
atlas and axis (pivot), inbetween vertebra (cartilaginous), between vertebral arches (gliding)
27 of 46
5 sections of the spine
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum and coccyx
28 of 46
movement and muscles- spine (trunk)
flexion (rectus abdominus), extension(erector spinae), lateral flexion(external/internal obliques), inward rotation(internal oblique), outward (external oblique//0
29 of 46
joint type - hip
ball and socket
30 of 46
articulating bones- hip
acetabulum of the pelvis and head of the femur
31 of 46
movement and muscles - hip
flexion (iliopsoas), extension(gluteous maximus), abduction(adductor longuse/brevis/magnus),inrotation(gluteous mimus),outrotation(gluteous maximus)
32 of 46
knee- joint type
33 of 46
articulating bones
femur and tibia
34 of 46
movements and muscles
flexion( biceps femoris) extension (rectus femoris)
35 of 46
ankle- joint type
36 of 46
articulating bones- ankle
tibia, fibula and talus
37 of 46
movements and muscle- ankle
plantar flexion (soleus and gastrocnemius) dorsi flexion (tibialis anterior)
38 of 46
3 types of muscular contraction
concentric, eccentric and isometric
39 of 46
what is concentric contraction
when a muscle shortens under tension producing movement around the joint. force exerted is greater than the resistance
40 of 46
what is eccentric contraction
when a muscle lengthens under tension helping to control movement around a joint. force exerted is less than resistance
41 of 46
what is isometric contraction
when a muscle increases tension but no movement at the joint
42 of 46
the 3 types of muscle fibres
slow oxidative fibre, fast oxidative glycolytic(2a), fast glycolyitic (2b)
43 of 46
name 4 characterisitcs of muscle tissue
excitability, contractility, extensibility and elasticity
44 of 46
name 4 physiological effects of a warm up
increased speed and force of contraction, improved economy of movement (less resistance), haemoglobin releases O2 more readily, increased flexibility
45 of 46
3 physiological effects of a cool down
faster removal of latic acid and fast twitch muscle fibres, faster removal of CO2, reduction in the risk of delayed onset of muscle soreness caused by connective tissue damage.
46 of 46

Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is the growth plate


plate of cartilidge between the diaphysis and epiphysis that allows bone to grow in length

Card 3


what is collagen


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is osteoprosis


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is osteoarthritis


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Anatomy & physiology resources »