As Level - Anatomy and Physiology Q&A Cards - OCR

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  • Created on: 08-09-14 13:55
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Define Stroke volume and give a resting value the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles OR
for the average adult (2) heart per beat OR per contraction
Describe the changes that take place to stroke SV increases
volume from rest to maximal exercise (3) SV plateaus
SV decreases
Describe the Law of Inertia a body will remain in a state of uniform motion or at
rest unless an (external) force acts upon it
Describe the Law of Acceleration the acceleration or rate of change of momentum or
velocity of an object is proportional to the force
Describe the Law of reaction For every action there is an equal and opposite
Define ABDUCTION body part moves away from midline
Define ACCELERATOR NERVE Stimulates the SA node to increase heart rate and
stroke volume
Define ADDUCTION body part moves towards the midline
Define AEROBIC and give an example of a exercise with oxygen - jogging
Define AGONIST and state its contraction muscle responsible for creating movement -
Define ANGINA Partial blockage of a coronary artery
Define ANGULAR MOTION When a body moves in a circular path about an axis or
Define ANAEROBIC and give an example of a exercise without oxygen - sprinting
Define ANTAGONIST and state its contraction a muscle that acts in opposition to the agonist -
Define ARTICULAR CARTILAGE smooth, spongey cartilage that covers ends of bones
in a joint and absorbs shock and reduces friction
Define ARTERIOSCLEROSIS walls of arteries become harder and less elastic
Define ATHEROSCLEROSIS The accumulation of cholesterol/plaque/atheroma on
walls of arteries causing narrowing
Define BLOOD PRESSURE - what is the pressure exerted by blood against the artery walls -
recommended BP 120/80
Define BASE OF SUPPORT the area of a body in contact with the floor
Give two effects of Carbon Monoxide on the Less efficient gas exchange or diffusion
transport of oxygen in the blood (2) Haemoglobin has a higher affinity for carbon
monoxide/ less oxygen combines with haemoglobin
Define CARDIAC OUTPUT the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle
per minute
Define CENTRE OF MASS The point at which the body is balanced in all
Define CIRCUMDUCTION body part moves in a cone shape
Define CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION muscles shortening + tension

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Define CORE STABILITY ability to stabilise the body during physical activity
Define DORSI FLEXION foot moves towards the shin
Define ECCENTRIC CONTRACTION muscle lengthens + tension
Define END DIASTOLIC VOLUME a volume of blood remaining in the ventricles after
Define END SYSTOLIC VOLUME a volume of blood remaining in the ventricles after
Define EXTENSTION body part moving backwards
Define EXTERNAL RESPIRATION gaseous exchange between the alveoli air and the
Define FLEXION body part moves forwards
Define GENERAL MOTION a combination of linear…read more

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Define PLANTAR FLEXION foots moves away from the shin
Define PRONATION palms face downwards
Define ROTATION body part turning about its long axis
What is the SA node? What does it do? Sino Atrial node - responsible for initiating the cardiac
Define STARLINGS LAW Stroke volume is dependent on venous return
Define SUPINATION palms face upwards
Define TIDAL VOLUME the volume of air inspire or expired per breath
Describe what the VASCULAR SHUNT the redistribution of cardiac output to the muscles and
MECHANISM is…read more

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Give three functional features of Fast fast contraction speed
Glycolytic muscle fibres low fatigue resistance
high anaerobic capacity
Give three functional features of Fast fast contraction speed
Oxidative Glycolytic muscle fibres low fatigue resistance
high anaerobic capacity
Give three functional features of Slow twitch slow contraction speed
muscle fibres high fatigue resistance
high aerobic capacity
Explain three principles that make a performer position of centre of mass
stable in the starting blocks (3) position of line of gravity
size of area of support
Identify the…read more

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Smooth Muscle - contraction and relaxation of middle
the tunica media (middle vein layer)
Gravity - blood from above the heart is aided by
gravity as it descends to the hearts
Precapillary Sphincters
What are the missing boxes?
What is the effect of a warm up on the vascular Vasodilation
system? (5) Vasoconstriction
increased oxygen to muscles
increase in temperature (decrease in blood viscosity)
enzyme delivery increase
What is the effect of a cool down on the Removal of lactic acid and co2…read more

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The blood CO2 pp is... Low
The Alveoli oxygen is... CO2 to alveoli
The alveoli CO2 is... O2 to haemoglobin
The dissociation is...
The association is...
Finish the following sentences for diffusion at Oxygenated
rest for internal respiration (7) High
Blood is entering... Low
The blood oxygen partial pressure is... Low
The blood CO2 pp is... High
The muscle oxygen is... O2 to muscle
The muscle CO2 is... CO2 to haemoglobin
The dissociation is...
The association is...…read more

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What are the two instrinsic factors? What Venous Return
does they contribute to? Thermorecpetor
Cardiac Control Centre
What is the hormonal factor and what does it Adrenalin
stimulate? SA Node ­ to increase HR and SV
Describe the VASOMOTOR CONTROL CENTRE Neural factors stimulate the ARTERIOLES = PRE
The muscles VASODILATE
Increased cardiac output to ORGANS
Decreased Q to MUSCLES
Describe the CARDIAC CONTROL CENTRE (4) Neural , Intrinsic and Hormonal factors stimulate the
This increases the…read more

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Complete this table for the mechanics of
breathing during EXERCISE
Inspiratio active Expiration Active
active Active n
Contract Relaxes Diaphrag Contract Diaphrag Relaxes
more m more m
force force
Contract Relax External Contract External Relax
more Intercosta more intercosta
force ls force ls
Contract Contract sternoclei Contract sternoclei Contract
odomast odomast
oid oid
Contract Contract Pectoralis Contract Pectoralis Contract
Further up Down + minor minor
and out in
quicker Ribs Further up Ribs Down +
Increase Decrease move and out move in
further quicker quicker…read more


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