AS OCR PE - Anatomy and Physiology Notes

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  • Created by: Bob
  • Created on: 09-12-12 22:48
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Major Muscles
Wrist flexors (flexion)
Wrist extensors
Pronator teres
Supinator (supination)
Bicep brachii (flexion)
Tricep Brachii (extension)
Anteriod deltiod (flexion)
Middle deltiod
Posterior deltiod
Latissimus dorsi
Pectoralis major
(horizontal flexion)
Trapezius (horizontal
Teres minor (lateral
Infraspinatus (lateral
Teres major
Subscapularis (medial rotation)
Rectus abdominus (flexion)
Erector spinae group (extension)
External obliques (lateral flextion and rotation)
Internal obliques (lateral flexion and rotation)
Illopsoas (flexion)
Gluteus maximus (extension)
Gluteus medius
Synovial Joints
Free movement least stable.
Joints between the arms and legs

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Joins bone to bone
Synovial fluid
Lubricates it reducing friction
Articulating cartilage
Acts as a shock absorber
Joint Capsule
Fibrous tissue encasing the joint, adding stability
Synovial membrane
Lines the joint capsule secretes synovial fluid
Sac filled with synovial fluid between ligaments and tendons preventing friction
Pads of Fat
Provides a cushion between capsule and bone muscle
Wedge of white fibrocartilage makes joint more stable reducing wear and tear.…read more

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Horizontal flexion
Horizontal extension
Pronation and
Lateral flexion
Plantar flexion
Slow twitch muscle fibres
Contract slowly
Do not produce as much force
Suited to more aerobic work
Contain more mitochondria and myoglobin.
Fast twitch muscle Fibres
Contract quicker
Produce more force
Suitable to anaerobic work
They are less resistance to fatigue
There are two types:
Type 2b: greatest anaerobic capacity contract with the most speed and force.…read more

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The effect of Warm up and Cool down on skeletal Muscle tissue
Warming up
Increases core temperature of the body
Increased speed and force of contraction
Improved economy of movement
Haemoglobin releases oxygen in muscle tissue more readily
Increased flexibility
Cooling down
Lowering the core temperature of the body
Faster removal of lactic acid from fast twitch muscle fibre
Faster removal of carbon dioxide
Reduction in the risk of delayed onset of muscle soreness
Long term participation in an active lifestyle and its impact on…read more

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Can apply a stronger force to apply acceleration towards ball, however when
ball hits net it will cause it to slow down
Change an objects shape
Force of the ball on the net will cause it to change shape
Effect of force is dependent on
Force muscle can give
Where you apply the force
If you apply it off centre of mass it will be angular
Through the centre of mass body will move in the same direction
Newton's Law of Motion…read more

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Lower centre of mass
Get set
4 points of contact
Higher centre of mass
Line of gravity is near to the edge of the base of support
Take your marks position
5 points of contact
Centre of mass is lower
Line of gravity is in the middle of the base of support
Structure of the heart
Respiratory system
Takes in o2, removes co2 in lungs
Received from the right ventricle
Taken back into the left atrium in the heart
Forces blood around vascular system…read more

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Coronary Veins
Drain deoxygenated blood directly back into right atrium
Conduction System
Cardiac impulse
Electrical impulse responsible for stimulating the heart to contract
It is myogenic as generates its own impulses
Cardiac impulse initiated from SA node in right atruim
Passes through the Right and left atruim walls causing atria to contract (atrial systole)
AV node conducts impulses down through a bundle of hiss down through the left and right
bundle branches to the bottem of the heart.…read more

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Cardiac Output
Volume of blood ejected by the heart in a minute.…read more

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Improved length of quality of an individual's life
Response to the cardiovascular system
Vascular system
Controls blood supply (blood and blood vessels)
Heart consists of two separate pumps
Pulmonary Circulation
Deoxygenated from right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium
Systemic Circulation
Oxygen from left ventricle to body tissues, deoxygenated back to right atrium
Blood Vessel Structure
Arteries / arterioles
Transport oxygenated blood away from the heart towards tissue/muscle.…read more

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Distribution of cardiac output
At rest: 15 20% is supplied to the muscles and 80 85% to vital organs
At exercise: 8085% is supplied to the muscles and 1520% to vital organs
Vasomotor control centre
Regulates the redistribution of cardiac output by controlling the vascular shunt mechanism.…read more



your notes on both A&P and skill were really useful. Thank you so much. Are you able to put up notes for skill?

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