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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY NOTES

Major Muscles
Wrist
Wrist flexors (flexion)
Wrist extensors
(extension)
Radioulnar
Pronator teres
(pronation)
Supinator (supination)
Elbow
Bicep brachii (flexion)
Tricep Brachii (extension)
Shoulder
Anteriod deltiod (flexion)
Middle deltiod
(abduction)
Posterior deltiod
(extension)
Latissimus dorsi
(adduction)
Pectoralis major
(horizontal flexion)
Trapezius (horizontal
extension)
Teres minor (lateral
rotation)…

Page 2

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Ligaments
Joins bone to bone
Synovial fluid
Lubricates it reducing friction
Articulating cartilage
Acts as a shock absorber
Joint Capsule
Fibrous tissue encasing the joint, adding stability
Synovial membrane
Lines the joint capsule secretes synovial fluid
Bursa
Sac filled with synovial fluid between ligaments and tendons preventing friction
Pads of…

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Horizontal flexion
Horizontal extension
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation
Circumduction
Pronation and
Supination
Lateral flexion
Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion

Muscle
Slow twitch muscle fibres
Contract slowly
Do not produce as much force
Suited to more aerobic work
Contain more mitochondria and myoglobin.
Fast twitch muscle Fibres
Contract quicker
Produce more force
Suitable to…

Page 4

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The effect of Warm up and Cool down on skeletal Muscle tissue
Warming up
Increases core temperature of the body
Increased speed and force of contraction
Improved economy of movement
Haemoglobin releases oxygen in muscle tissue more readily
Increased flexibility
Cooling down
Lowering the core temperature of the body
Faster…

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Accelerate/decelerate
Can apply a stronger force to apply acceleration towards ball, however when
ball hits net it will cause it to slow down
Change an objects shape
Force of the ball on the net will cause it to change shape
Effect of force is dependent on
Size
Force muscle can…

Page 6

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Lower centre of mass
Get set
4 points of contact
Higher centre of mass
Line of gravity is near to the edge of the base of support
Take your marks position
5 points of contact
Centre of mass is lower
Line of gravity is in the middle of the base…

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Coronary Veins
Drain deoxygenated blood directly back into right atrium

Conduction System
Cardiac impulse
Electrical impulse responsible for stimulating the heart to contract
It is myogenic as generates its own impulses

Cardiac impulse initiated from SA node in right atruim
Passes through the Right and left atruim walls causing atria…

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Cardiac Output
Volume of blood ejected by the heart in a minute.
Q = SV x HR

Hearts response to exercise
Young fit aerobic athlete will have a lower resting heart rate due to an increase in stroke
volume
Heart increases before exercise due to the release of adrenalin acts…

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Improved length of quality of an individual's life

Response to the cardiovascular system
Vascular system
Controls blood supply (blood and blood vessels)
Heart consists of two separate pumps
Pulmonary Circulation
Deoxygenated from right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium
Systemic Circulation
Oxygen from left ventricle to…

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Distribution of cardiac output
At rest: 15 20% is supplied to the muscles and 80 85% to vital organs
At exercise: 8085% is supplied to the muscles and 1520% to vital organs

Vasomotor control centre
Regulates the redistribution of cardiac output by controlling the vascular shunt mechanism.
Stimulated by chemoreceptors…

Comments

chim

your notes on both A&P and skill were really useful. Thank you so much. Are you able to put up notes for skill?

Maria Carr18

Thank you so much these notes were really useful

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