OCR 21st Century Combined Science C1

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  • Created by: kokokeisy
  • Created on: 20-04-18 15:22
Key Features in a Solid ?
Strong Forces of Attraction, Regular Lattice Arrangement, Fixed Volume and Shape, Particles vibrate about their postions/
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Key Features in a Liquid?
Randomily Arranged, Free to move but stick closely together. Definite volume but not definite shape. Expland Slightly when heated
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Key Features in a Gas?
No forces of attraction, don't keep definite shape or volume, Move constantly in RANDOM motion. Expand or Pressure Increases when heated.
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What are the cons to the Particle Model Theory?
-Particles aren't solid or inelastic -Particles aren't spheres. -Different types of atoms, so VARIATION in size. -Doesn't show forces between particles.
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What is the Particle Model of Matter?
All substances are made of particles, and are always vibrating. If given some energy they change their behaviour.
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Whats a Physical CHange?
When a substance changes from one state of matter to another; no new substances are made
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Whats a Chemical CHange?
where BONDS between atoms break, atoms change places and the reactants rearrange to form different chemicals (products)
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Which is harder to reverse; a physical or a chemical change?
Chemical
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What happens in the process of Melting?
Solid is HEATED, GAINS energy. Particles vibrate more + WEAKENS forces that hold solid. At MELTING POINT, particles break free from positions.
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What happens in the process of Boiling?
Liquid is heated, GAINS energy. Particles move faster, WEAKENS + BREAKS bonds. At BOILING POINT all bonds break.
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What happens in the process of Condensing?
Gas COOLS, not enough energy can overcome FORCES OF ATTRACTION. Bonds form between gas particles.
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WHat happens in the process of Freezing?
Liquid COOLS, particles move less bc of less energy. Bonds form due to lack of energy to overcome forces of attraction. So many bonds form that particles are held in place.
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How do you determine the state of a solid?
If temperatures below the melting point of a substance.
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How do you determine the state of a liquid?
If the temperatures in between the melting and boiling point.
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How do you determine the state of a gas?
If the temperatures above the boiling point of a substance.
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How much energy is needed to make a substance change state?
If the melting and boiling point is high, the stronger the forces between particles, so the more energy needed to break them.
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WHat do ionic compounds form?
Giant Lattices.
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What does an ionic compound tell you about the elements in a compound?
The ratio .
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Defintion of an Exothermic Reaction
A reaction which gives out energy to its surroundings shown by a rise in temperature of the surroudings.
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Defintion of an Endothermic Reaction
Reaction wich takes in energy from its surroundings shown by a decrease in temperature of the surroundings.
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Which has more energy in an Exothermic Reaction; Products or Reactant?
Reactants
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Which has more energy in an Endothermic Reacion; Products or Reactant?
Products.
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Defintion of Activation energy
THe minimum amount of energy needed for bonds to break and a reaction to happen
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Equation for Overall Energy Change
Energy Required to break bonds - Energy released by forming bonds
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Define an exothermic process in terms of bonds.
When you require enegy to break a chemical bond (+)
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Define an endothermic process in terms of bonds
When energy is released to make bonds. (-)
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Describe Phase 1 of the Evolution of the Atmoshere.
Surface was covered in volcanoes. Early atmosphere was mainly carbon dioxide with emissions of nitrogen, methane,water vapour and ammonia
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Describe Phase 2 of the Evolution of the Atmosphere.
Water Vapour condensed into oceons where most of CO2 was absorbed. Carbon Precipitate formed Sediment, Animals and Plants formed.
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Describe Phase 3 of the Evolution of the Atmosphere
Plants and Cyanobacteria produced oxygen; making more complex lifeforms.
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What evidence supports the Evolution of the Atmosphere?
Rock Formations and Fossil Records
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Defintion of Oxidation
Addition of Oxygen to a substance in a reaction
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How do Combustion Reactions happen?
When you burn substances in Oxygen.
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Whats Complete Combustion?
When a chemical reaction produces energy in the form of heat and light
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Whats incomplete combustion?
when you dont have enough oxygen for complete combustion
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What toxic gases can incomplete combustion release?
CarbonMonoxide and soot
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WHy is carbon monoxide bad for you?
It combines with the haemoglobin and stops blood from carrying a lot of oxygen around the body.
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What effects does soot have?
Bad breathing problems, Reduces Air quality and quality of buildings,
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How is Acid Rain produceD?
When nitrogen oxides and sulfuric acids mix with the clouds
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Cons of removing Sulfure Dioxide.
Expensive and takes a lot of energy.
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What keeps the Earth warm?
Carbon Dioxide, Methane andWater Vapour
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What human factors affect amout of greenhouse gases?
Deforestation, Landfill, Agriculture, Burnig Fossil Fuels,
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Why is it hard to predict how much our climate will change in the future?
Predictions made may not be realistic and we dont know how much greenhouse gases will be emitted.
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Consequences of Climate Change (a loooot)
Melting of polar ice caps, Rise in Sea Levels, Coastal erosion, Flooding, Changes in Temperature and Rainfall, Frequuency of Storms,
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Methods to reduce Greenhouse gas Emissions?
Use renewable energy resources, USe nuclear energy, Tax companies for emissions they use, Conserve energy
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Methods Greenhouse Produces can do to reduce GG emissions?
Buying Carbon credits, Be Carbon Neutral, Capture CO2 and store it underground in oil wells
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Why is it hard to reduce GG Emissions?
New technology has unknown/unexpected impacts, Can effect economic growth, Hard to make international agreements, Too much emissions
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How do you test for Chlorine?
Bleaches Blue Litmus paper WHITE. Red at first bc its acidic
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How do you test for Oxygen?
Makes a glowing splint relight again
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How do you test for Hydrogen?
Lit Splint goes POP
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How do you test for Carbon Dioxide?
CO2 and Calcium Hydroxide will turn solution cloudy.
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Whats Potable Water?
Drinkable WAter
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Where can you get sources for Potable Water? (3)
Ground Water, Waste Water and Salt Water
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What is Aeriation and what does it do?
Water mixed with air to dissolve other gases out of the water and removes ions
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List the Stages of Waste Water Treatment.
(1)Filter. (2)Pump Air(3)Aerobic Bacteria breaks down organic matter.(4)UV Radiation or Membranes treat toxics.
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List 1 form of Distilling Sea Water
(1)Leave in Direct Sunlight to evaporate and condense. (2)Salt is left behind *distilliation apparatus can be used with burning fossil fuels*
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List 1 form of Distilling Sea Water
Reverse Osmosis. (1)Force water through membrane.(2)Only Water molcules pass through
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Cons to Thermal Distillation and Reverse Osmosis.
Expensive and needs lots of energy
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What does Chlorination do?
Cl Gas kills bactera/microbes.
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Cons to Chlorination.
Can react and make dangerous chemicals.
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Card 2

Front

Key Features in a Liquid?

Back

Randomily Arranged, Free to move but stick closely together. Definite volume but not definite shape. Expland Slightly when heated

Card 3

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Key Features in a Gas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What are the cons to the Particle Model Theory?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What is the Particle Model of Matter?

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