Chemistry C7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess) - OCR 21st Century, 2011 Specification


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Preview of Chemistry C7 Notes Completed + Highlighted (Excess) - OCR 21st Century, 2011 Specification

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C7 Notes 1
C7 Further Chemistry
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury
References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet sources
Topic 1: Green Industry
Brief Intro 14/06/13
Natural resources are converted into useful products.
Bulk chemicals produced on a large scale b/c there is a larger demand for them.
Fine chemical are produced on a smaller scale.
They're used as feedstock's (reactants bought by other manufacturers).
How to achieve a greener industry
Renewable sources
Fewer use of hazardous chemicals
Increased energy efficiency
Nabilah Chowdhury, 11Ra Ms McFadden

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C7 Notes 2
Reduce waste + pollution
Higher yield
The work of the chemical industry 1A
Maintenance worker: Fixes problems with machines
Transport workers: Brings materials into the plant
Research chemists: Investigate the best method
Production chemists: "Scale up" the methods
Analytical chemists: Test the purity of samples and see if it measure up to standards.
Technical team: Monitor data + conditions
Chemical process
1) These raw materials are converted into chemicals and purified into feedstocks after being heated and
compressed.…read more

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C7 Notes 3
Fewer emissions
Saves crude oil
Yield ­ efficiency of method
Compares quality with predicted quality
High yield = good but doesn't mean that process is "green".
Working out percentage yield
E.g. 10g of CaCO3 is heated for 20mins. The product is 4.8g of CaO. What is the percentage yield?
1. Formula: CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
Atoms that end up in the product are referred to as green. Waste products are brown.
2.…read more

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C7 Notes 4
Exothermic reactions release energy which is used to make steam to generate electricity = NO BILLS for
extra energy
Catalysts speed up CR's for the DESIRED product NOT the unwanted product.
PROs of catalysts
Reduces waste
Lower temp. required good for environment
Saves energy
Need to find ways to lower energy demand.
Biocatalyst ­ enzymes produced by microorganisms
Operates within limited temp.…read more

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C7 Notes 5
Topic 2: The chemistry of chemical compounds
The Alkanes ­ a family of hydrocarbons 2A 15/06/13
Physical properties
1) Oily 2) insoluble 3) less dense than H2O,
mainly gasses 4) Insoluble - doesn't mix with H2O
Gas: 4 carbon atoms Liquid: 4 ­ 17 carbon atoms Solid: 17+ carbon atoms
Hydrocarbons + burning Carbon dioxide + water
When there is a lack of oxygen: Hydrocarbons + burning Carbon monoxide + soot
Alkanes don't react with aqueous reagents e.g.…read more

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C7 Notes 6
The formula CnH (2n+2), where n = no of carbon atoms, can be used to determine the formula for
each alkane. E.g. To find propane: C3H (2x3 +2) = C3H8
The Alkenes
The alkenes are unsaturated and are more reactive b/c of the C =C double bond.
The double bond allows them to melt and form into different things e.g. plastic
The Alcohols ­ OH group 2B
Alcohols have similar properties b/c they have the OH at the end.…read more

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C7 Notes 7
B/c the ­ OH group allows other molecules to cling together; alcohol and water can mix together.
But if hydrocarbon length is too long the oiliness of the alcohol will dominate and it will be too
difficult to mix.
Reaction with sodium
Only the hydrogen atom in the ­ OH is involved in the reaction. The hydrogen atoms linked to the carbon
(C ­H) are inert or un-reactive.…read more

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C7 Notes 8
The production of ethanol 2B
Uses: fuel, solvent, feedstock.
Principles of green chemistry must be applied to the process + modifications must be made if
PRO's of fermentation
Renewable feedstock - e.g. waste plant material ­ maize, sugar cane.…read more

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C7 Notes 9
Distillation ­ separating chemicals based on boiling points
This is used to obtain higher conc. of ethanol.
Is fermentation sustainable?
Analyse the data and think about:
Raw materials e.g. renewable feedstock
Atom economy waste = low AE
Waste released? Recycled?
Energy costs e.g. for opt. temp.
Environment e.g. GHG
Health + safety
Benefits / risks
Energy balance
Energy balance - Energy output needs to be greater than energy input
Higher EB = greener process.…read more

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C7 Notes 10
Bacteria breaks down wide range of sugars into ethanol
Fungi breaks down biomass into glucose ethanol
Yeast converts glucose into ethanol
Yeats withstands high concs. of ethanol more profit
Biomass used = less waste
PRO's of GM
Waste biomass can't be fermented normally b/c contains cellulose; cellulose can't be converted by
yeast, into ethanol.
G.M E.Coli converts cellulose into ethanol
Yeast only breaks down glucose NOT other types of sugars available in plant feedstock's
GM E.…read more


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