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C7 Notes 1

C7 Further Chemistry
OCR 21st Century: 2011 specification
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury


References: OCR 21st Century Further Sciences Book, CGP: OCR 21st century + various internet sources

Topic 1: Green Industry
Brief Intro 14/06/13

Natural resources are converted into useful products.

Bulk chemicals produced on a…

Page 2

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C7 Notes 2

Reduce waste + pollution
Higher yield

The work of the chemical industry 1A

Maintenance worker: Fixes problems with machines
Transport workers: Brings materials into the plant
Research chemists: Investigate the best method
Production chemists: "Scale up" the methods
Analytical chemists: Test the purity of samples and…

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C7 Notes 3

Fewer emissions
Saves crude oil

Yield ­ efficiency of method
Compares quality with predicted quality

High yield = good but doesn't mean that process is "green".

Working out percentage yield

E.g. 10g of CaCO3 is heated for 20mins. The product is 4.8g of CaO. What is…

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C7 Notes 4

Exothermic reactions release energy which is used to make steam to generate electricity = NO BILLS for
extra energy

Catalysts speed up CR's for the DESIRED product NOT the unwanted product.

PROs of catalysts
Reduces waste
Lower temp. required good for environment
Saves energy

Need to…

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C7 Notes 5

Topic 2: The chemistry of chemical compounds
The Alkanes ­ a family of hydrocarbons 2A 15/06/13

Physical properties
1) Oily 2) insoluble 3) less dense than H2O,
mainly gasses 4) Insoluble - doesn't mix with H2O

Gas: 4 carbon atoms Liquid: 4 ­ 17 carbon atoms…

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C7 Notes 6

The formula CnH (2n+2), where n = no of carbon atoms, can be used to determine the formula for
each alkane. E.g. To find propane: C3H (2x3 +2) = C3H8

The Alkenes
The alkenes are unsaturated and are more reactive b/c of the C =C double bond.…

Page 7

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C7 Notes 7

B/c the ­ OH group allows other molecules to cling together; alcohol and water can mix together.
But if hydrocarbon length is too long the oiliness of the alcohol will dominate and it will be too
difficult to mix.

Reaction with sodium

Only the hydrogen atom in…

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C7 Notes 8

The production of ethanol 2B
Uses: fuel, solvent, feedstock.
Principles of green chemistry must be applied to the process + modifications must be made if

PRO's of fermentation

Renewable feedstock - e.g. waste plant material ­ maize, sugar cane.
Un-fermented parts used as animal food…

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C7 Notes 9

Distillation ­ separating chemicals based on boiling points
This is used to obtain higher conc. of ethanol.

Is fermentation sustainable?

Analyse the data and think about:

Raw materials e.g. renewable feedstock
Atom economy waste = low AE
Waste released? Recycled?
Energy costs e.g. for opt. temp.…

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C7 Notes 10


Bacteria breaks down wide range of sugars into ethanol
Fungi breaks down biomass into glucose ethanol
Yeast converts glucose into ethanol
Yeats withstands high concs. of ethanol more profit
Biomass used = less waste

PRO's of GM

Waste biomass can't be fermented normally b/c contains cellulose;…




Incredibly comprehensive notes. Saved my GCSE. Thank you so much!



Amazing Notes.

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