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Chemistry C4 Book Notes

The structure of an atom
Electrons () mass is nearly nothing
Protons (+) mass is 1
Neutron (no charge) mass is 1

Mass and atomic number

Mass Number (number of protons and neutrons)

Proton number

In the periodic table the elements are ordered by their proton…

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They react more vigorously with iron as you move up the group. They exist as diatomic molecules
(they both have a full outer shell).

Diatomic molecules
Halogen Chemical Formula State at color Melting Boiling
formula of room point (°C) point (°C)
molecule temp
Chlorine Cl Cl 2 Gas Green 101…

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The ions formed are held with enormously strong forces of attraction between the oppositely
charged ions. This electrostatic force of attraction, which acts in all directions, is called an Ionic
An ion is a charged atom or molecule. It is charged because the number of electrons does not

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As you move down the periods an extra shell is added.
Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.

Properties of Group 1 and Group 7 Ionic Compounds
They have high melting points due to the high number of ionic bonds that need…

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Line spectra
Each spectrum consists of a series of lines. You can view a spectrum through a
spectroscope. A spectroscope is where light enter through one telescope, at an
angle, and is then split into a spectrum by a glass prism. This is viewed with a
second telescope, also at…


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