C1, C2, C3 OCR Nationals

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C1- Air quality

C1.1 Which chemicals make up air, and which ones are pollutants? How do I make
sense of data about air pollution?

The Earth is surrounded by a thin layer of gasses called the ATMOSPHERE. It is about 15km thick.
Air forms part of the atmosphere - it…

Page 2

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Human activity has changed the composition of the atmosphere by adding small amounts of
carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide to the atmosphere AND extra carbon
dioxide and small particles of solids (e.g. carbon) to the atmosphere.

POLLUTANTS that harm the environment can also harm humans indirectly. For example:…

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WEATHER: pollutants are mixed up and carried around by the winds. Wind can move the
pollutants many miles and even carry them from one country to another.

C1.2 What chemical reactions produce air pollutants? What happens to these
pollutants in the atmosphere?

Many atmospheric pollutants are made by the burning…

Page 4

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Incomplete combustion occurs in car engines, so exhaust emissions contain carbon particulates
and carbon monoxide, as well as carbon dioxide. Many samples of coal contain sulfur, so is
released into the atmosphere when fuels that contain sulfur compounds burn to create SULFUR
DIOXIDE.

Burning fossil fuels in power stations and…

Page 5

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Making sure cars are fitted with CATALYTIC CONVERTERS which reduce the amount of
carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide emitted.

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CATALYTIC CONVERTER




Global Choices National Choices Local Choices Personal Choices
In 1997 there was an Some initiatives set by Many local authorities · Using less energy in the
international meeting the UK: are trying to encourage home reduces the
about climate change in · Setting legal limits for us to…

Page 7

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C2 ­ Material Choices

C2.1 How do we measure the properties of materials and why are the results useful?

Different materials behave in different ways because they have different PROPERTIES. Solid
materials can differ in one or more of the following ways:

Melting point
Strength in tension (when pulled)
Strength…

Page 8

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RUBBER is also waterproof and flexible; it is very hard-wearing, and will not slip easily when in
contact with the ground.

Many people may have ideas about why materials have different properties, but these opinions
are not very useful if they are not supported by DATA. To justify an explanation,…

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When extracted CRUDE OIL is a thick, black sticky liquid however is not very useful until it has
been processed at an oil refinery. The process of refining involves separating the hydrocarbons
into fractions or batches using a technique called FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION. Each fraction
separates as they have different boiling…

Page 10

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Polychloroethen Unreactive, does
Chloroethene Window frames Wood
e (PVC) not rot
C2.3 Why does it help to know about the molecular structure of materials such as
plastics and fibres?

MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS

It is possible to produce a wide range of different polymers with properties that make them suited…

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