Neoplasia

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1. Which of these does NOT form a genetic basis for carcinogenesis?

  • Loss or inactivation of recessive, growth inhibiting genes (tumour suppressor genes)
  • A genetic defect machinery which produces proteins in the cell
  • A genetic defect in the genes which are responsible for DNA repair
  • Enhances expression of dominant growth promoting genes (oncogenes)
  • A genetic defect in the genes the regulate apoptosis (dominant or recessive)
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2. Which of these is not a pathway of spread for metastases?

  • Haematogenous (blood)
  • Nerves
  • Lymphatics
  • Transcoelomic

3. What does 'N' mean in the determination of the stage of a tumour?

  • The degree of metastases.
  • The nuclear size and pleomorphism.
  • The number of lymph nodes involved.
  • The depth of invasion.

4. Which of these host factors does not affect tumour growth?

  • Their diet
  • Their circulating hormone levels
  • The vascular supply to the tumour

5. Which of these is the first step in proliferation of normal cells?

  • The cell divides in a controlled way
  • Nuclear regulatory factors that initiate DNA transcription are activated
  • A signal is transduced across the membrane
  • A growth factor binds to and activated a cell surface growth factor receptor
  • The cell enters and progresses in the cell cycle
  • A transduced signal is transmitted to the nucleus

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