1. Which of these does NOT form a genetic basis for carcinogenesis?
- A genetic defect in the genes the regulate apoptosis (dominant or recessive)
- Enhances expression of dominant growth promoting genes (oncogenes)
- A genetic defect machinery which produces proteins in the cell
- Loss or inactivation of recessive, growth inhibiting genes (tumour suppressor genes)
- A genetic defect in the genes which are responsible for DNA repair
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2. What is an adenoma?
- A benign neoplasm of cartilage
- A benign neoplasm of glandular epithelium
- A malignant neoplasm of glandular epithelium
- A malignant neoplasm of cartilage
3. Which of these is not a pathway of spread for metastases?
- Haematogenous (blood)
4. Which of these host factors does not affect tumour growth?
- Their diet
- Their circulating hormone levels
- The vascular supply to the tumour
5. Which of these is a factor in the growth of transformed, tumour cells?
- Increased cohesion and being anchorage dependent
- Early maturation
- Loss of contact inhibition and colony formation
- Increased serum growth factor requirment