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1. Which of these does NOT form a genetic basis for carcinogenesis?

  • A genetic defect in the genes which are responsible for DNA repair
  • A genetic defect in the genes the regulate apoptosis (dominant or recessive)
  • Enhances expression of dominant growth promoting genes (oncogenes)
  • A genetic defect machinery which produces proteins in the cell
  • Loss or inactivation of recessive, growth inhibiting genes (tumour suppressor genes)
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2. Which of these is the first step in proliferation of normal cells?

  • The cell enters and progresses in the cell cycle
  • A signal is transduced across the membrane
  • A growth factor binds to and activated a cell surface growth factor receptor
  • The cell divides in a controlled way
  • Nuclear regulatory factors that initiate DNA transcription are activated
  • A transduced signal is transmitted to the nucleus

3. Which of these host factors does not affect tumour growth?

  • Their diet
  • Their circulating hormone levels
  • The vascular supply to the tumour

4. What is a malignant neoplasm of striated muscle called?

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Leiomyosarcoma
  • Liposarcoma
  • Osteosarcoma

5. What is an adenoma?

  • A benign neoplasm of cartilage
  • A malignant neoplasm of cartilage
  • A benign neoplasm of glandular epithelium
  • A malignant neoplasm of glandular epithelium


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