1. Which of these does NOT form a genetic basis for carcinogenesis?
- Loss or inactivation of recessive, growth inhibiting genes (tumour suppressor genes)
- A genetic defect machinery which produces proteins in the cell
- A genetic defect in the genes which are responsible for DNA repair
- Enhances expression of dominant growth promoting genes (oncogenes)
- A genetic defect in the genes the regulate apoptosis (dominant or recessive)
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2. Which of these is not a pathway of spread for metastases?
- Haematogenous (blood)
3. What does 'N' mean in the determination of the stage of a tumour?
- The degree of metastases.
- The nuclear size and pleomorphism.
- The number of lymph nodes involved.
- The depth of invasion.
4. Which of these host factors does not affect tumour growth?
- Their diet
- Their circulating hormone levels
- The vascular supply to the tumour
5. Which of these is the first step in proliferation of normal cells?
- The cell divides in a controlled way
- Nuclear regulatory factors that initiate DNA transcription are activated
- A signal is transduced across the membrane
- A growth factor binds to and activated a cell surface growth factor receptor
- The cell enters and progresses in the cell cycle
- A transduced signal is transmitted to the nucleus