1. Which of these is not true for malignant neoplasms?
- The neoplasm does not have a true capsule and have an ill-defined border.
- The nuclei are hyperchromatic and pleopmorphic.
- The neoplasm is well-differentiated.
- There are numerous mitotic figures within the neoplasm.
- The growth rate of the neoplasm is relatively rapid.
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2. Which of these disorders of cell growth are potential precursors for neoplasms?
- Hyperplasia, hypertrophy and metaplasia
- Metaplasia, atrophy and dysplasia
- Hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia
- Dysplasia, atrophy and hypertrophy
- Hyperplasia, atrophy and hypertrophy
3. What is a proto-oncogene?
- A normal gene that can undergo a mutation to become an oncogene
- A gene that is responsible for inducing apoptosis
- A gene which is inappropriately abnormally or excessively expressed in tumours and is responsible for their abnormal growth
- A gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer
4. Which of these does NOT form a genetic basis for carcinogenesis?
- A genetic defect in the genes the regulate apoptosis (dominant or recessive)
- A genetic defect in the genes which are responsible for DNA repair
- A genetic defect machinery which produces proteins in the cell
- Enhances expression of dominant growth promoting genes (oncogenes)
- Loss or inactivation of recessive, growth inhibiting genes (tumour suppressor genes)
5. What is an adenoma?
- A malignant neoplasm of cartilage
- A benign neoplasm of glandular epithelium
- A benign neoplasm of cartilage
- A malignant neoplasm of glandular epithelium