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1. Which of these does NOT form a genetic basis for carcinogenesis?

  • A genetic defect in the genes the regulate apoptosis (dominant or recessive)
  • Enhances expression of dominant growth promoting genes (oncogenes)
  • A genetic defect machinery which produces proteins in the cell
  • Loss or inactivation of recessive, growth inhibiting genes (tumour suppressor genes)
  • A genetic defect in the genes which are responsible for DNA repair
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2. What is an adenoma?

  • A benign neoplasm of cartilage
  • A benign neoplasm of glandular epithelium
  • A malignant neoplasm of glandular epithelium
  • A malignant neoplasm of cartilage

3. Which of these is not a pathway of spread for metastases?

  • Transcoelomic
  • Nerves
  • Haematogenous (blood)
  • Lymphatics

4. Which of these host factors does not affect tumour growth?

  • Their diet
  • Their circulating hormone levels
  • The vascular supply to the tumour

5. Which of these is a factor in the growth of transformed, tumour cells?

  • Increased cohesion and being anchorage dependent
  • Early maturation
  • Loss of contact inhibition and colony formation
  • Increased serum growth factor requirment


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