Nazi War Economy

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Pre War 1930s: Hitler's expectation of economy
Be able to withstand a blockade as seen in WW1
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How would this be possible?
Self-sufficient economy
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Achieved by?
4 Year Plan
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Results 1939:
Army = 3.8 M + 3000 warplanes. Arms = 23% GDP
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Germany's readiness in 1939
Mismatch between spending and munitions production
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Reasons for mismatch:
Chaotic polycratic state, Bottlenecks due to small labour force; small arms contractors not able to produce on mass scale; army wanted quality > quantity
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Which bodies were unable to co-ordinate?
Office of 4 Year Plan, Gauleiters, the SS, Ministry of economics, ministry of arms and army.
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Fears of army:
Shortage of munitions and raw materials for a long war
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1939-41
Military expenditure doubled
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1941: Workforce and war projects
55% of of workforce involved in war-related projects.
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1941: Germany production vs Allies
Britain = double aircraft
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3 People involved with the economy
Goering, Todt, Speer
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Goering role:
Plenipotentiary for the Office of the 4YP (1939)
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This gave him:
Limitless authority over the economy.
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Goerings mistakes:
Ersatz goods > cheaper imports; failure to introduce mass production into aircraft industry.
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When did Goerings pheen addiction **** him?
1939
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Todt: Reputation
Getting things done
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Success:
Some success in overcoming production bottlenecks by simplifying production in jan 1942
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Shortcomings:
Limited by turf wars including the army and Goerings office: both unwilling to hand over their armaments roles
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When was Speer appointed:
Feb 1942.
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His talent:
Gifted organiser.
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His recognition:
Germany must prepare for a prolonged total war vs its economically superior allies.
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Actions:
Replaced polycratic state w/ CP; [de]conscription of women/ skilled workers; deployed production lines; encouraged massive factories; standardised arms production via arms commission ; utilised CCs; sacked back managers and excluded army from plannin
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Strengths / successes in an...
unequal economic contest
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Food:
ukrainian arable land
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raw materials:
french coal
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munitions:
captured large amount from conquered states.
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labour:
Slave labour; 1944 8Million (1 fifth)
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internal war production
. trebled between 1942-44
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internal ammunition production
97% ^
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weaponry:
High quality, technologically advanced weaponry produced; Me 262 jet fighter.
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productivity:
increased average of 60%.
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Failures / weaknesses: Central planning
Gauleiters continued to interfere with economic efficiency.
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Labour:
Women not fully mobilised; slave labour productivity = 60/80% lower than normals.
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Substantial lack of
raw materials, notably oil; ersatz couldn't adequately compensate
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Wider campaign:
Failed to effectively exploit resources of conquered land; SS busy with racial policy
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wider campaign:
scorched earth policy; donbas in 1942 = 5% of coal production.
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distribution of resources
Allied bombings caused resources to be diverted to defensive measures
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Workers:
shortage of skilled workers: aircraft fitters + electricians
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Women paradigm
52% employed = no big campaign.
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Card 2

Front

How would this be possible?

Back

Self-sufficient economy

Card 3

Front

Achieved by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Results 1939:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Germany's readiness in 1939

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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