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what's the iniation step for the reaction between methane and chlorine?
Cl2-->2Cl.
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what's the first propagation step for the reaction between methane and chlorine?
Cl.+CH4-->CH3.+HCl
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what's the second propagation step for the reaction between methane and chlorine?
CH3.+Cl2-->CH3Cl+Cl.
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what termination steps are there for the reaction between methane and chlorine?
CH3.+Cl. -->CH3Cl or CH3.+CH3. -->C2H6
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how is ozone formed?
O2+UV-->O.+O., O2+O. -->O3
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give the equation for how Cl. are formed when they're broken down by UV radiation
CCl3F-->CCl2F.+Cl.
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how do chlorine free radicals react with ozone?
Cl.+O3-->O2+ClO. then ClO.+O2-->2O2+Cl.
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what's the general formula for alkenes?
CnH2n
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how do you test for unsaturation?
add orange bromine water, if it's unsaturated it goes colourless
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what's the equation for the steam hydration of ethene?
CH2=CH2(g)+H2O(g)↔CH3CH2OH(g)
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what are the conditions for the steam hydration of ethene reaction?
H3PO4 catalyst, 300oc and 60atm
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how is a high yield produced when the original yield is only 5%?
Recycle unreacted ethene gas, overall yield, 95%
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what are the equations for the hydration of alkenes in a lab?
1.CH2=CH2+H2SO4-->CH3CH2OSO2OH, 2. CH3CH2OSO2OH+H2O-->CH3CH2OH+ H2SO4
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what is a stereoisomer?
Have same structural formula but a different arrangement in space
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how do stereoisomers happen?
when 2 double bonded C atoms have different atoms or groups attached to them
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what is the hydration of ethene?
Uses ethene from oil to produce pure ethanol. Uses expensive equipment to produce.
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what's fermentation?
C6H12O6-->2C2H5OH+2CO2. Yeast produces enzymes to convert sugars into ethanol+carbon dioxide. When solution reaches 15% ethanol, yeast dies. Fractional distillation used to increase conc of ethanol. low tech, it uses cheap equipment+renewable stuff
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how would you oxidise a alcohol to an aldenhyde and then to a carboxyllic acid?
R-CH2-OH+ [O]-->RC(=O)H+H2O+[O]-->RCOOH
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what are the conditions of oxidising an alcohol to an aldenhyde?
use sulphuric acid and distill
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what are the conditions of oxidising an alcohol to a carboxylic acid?
excess oxygen and reflux
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how do you oxidise a secondary alcohol to a ketone?
Secondary alcohol+[O]-->R1C(=O)R2+H2O
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how do you test for an aldehyde?
Tollens reagent: aldehyde-silver mirror, ketone-no visible change or Fehling's/benedicts:aldehyde-brick red ppt, ketone-no visible change.
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what's the first propagation step for the reaction between methane and chlorine?

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Cl.+CH4-->CH3.+HCl

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what's the second propagation step for the reaction between methane and chlorine?

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Card 4

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what termination steps are there for the reaction between methane and chlorine?

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Card 5

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how is ozone formed?

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