Memory - Psychology key tems

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Capacity
This is a measure of how much can be held in memory. It is represented in terms of bits of information, such as number of digits
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Coding (also 'encoding')
The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Info enter brain through the senses (eg eyes + ears). Stored in visual, acoustic or semantic codes
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Duration
A measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available
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Long-term Memory (LTM)
Memory for events that have happened in the past. This lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years. LTM has potentially unlimited duration and capacity and tends to be coded semantically
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Short-term Memory (STM)
Memory for immediate events. STMs are measured in seconds and minutes (ie a short duration). Will disappear unless rehearsed. Limited capacity of amount 4 items or chunks and tend to code acoustically. Sometimes referred to as Working Memory
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Multi-Store Model
An explanation of memory based on 3 separate memory stores, and how information is transferred betweeen these stores
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Sensory Register
This is the information at the senses. Info is retained for a very brief period by the sensory registers. Only able to hold accurate images momentarily (
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Central Executive
Monitors and coordinates all other mental functions in working memory
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Episodic Buffer
Receives input from many sources, temporarily stores this info, and integrates it in order to construct a mental episode of what is being experienced.
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Phonological loop
Codes speech sounds in working memory, typically involving maintenance rehearsal (repeating the words over and over again). This is why this component of working memory is referred to as a 'loop'.
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Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
Codes visual information in terms of separate objects as well as the arrangement of these objects in one's visual field.
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Working Memory Model
An explanation of the memory used when working on a task. Each store is qualitatively different
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Episodic Memory
Personal memories of events, such as what you did yesterday or a teacher you liked. This kind of memory includes contextual details plus emotional tone
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Procedural Memory
Memory for how to do things, e.g. riding a bike or learning how to read. Such memories are automatic as a result of repeated practice
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Semantic Memory
Shared memories for facts and knowledge. These memories may be concrete, such as knowing that ice is made of water, or abstract, such as mathematical knowledge
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Interference
An explanation for forgetting in terms of one memory disrupting the ability to recall another. This is most likely to occur when the 2 memories have some similarity
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Proactive Interference (PI)
Past learning interferes with current attempts to learn something.
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Retroactive Interference (RI)
Current attempts to learn something interfere with past learning
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Cues
Are things that serve as a reminder. May be a meaningful link to the material to be remembered, or may not, such as environmental cues (a room) or cues related to mental state (sad or drunk)
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Retrieval Failure
Occurs due to the absence of cues. Explanation for forgetting based on the idea that the issue relates to being able to retrieve a memory that is there (available) but not accessible.
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Eyewitness Testimony
The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime
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Leading Question
A question that, either by its form or content, suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads them to the desired answer.
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Misleading Information
Supplying information that may lead a witness' memory for a crime to be altered
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Post-event Discussion
A conversation between co-witnesses or an interviewer and an eyewitness after a crime has taken place which may contaminate a witness' memory for the event
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Anxiety
An unpleasant emotional state that is often accompanied by increased heart rate and rapid breathing, i.e. physiological arousal
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Cognitive Interview
A police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context of the crime in order to increase the accesibility of stored info. Memories are accessed using multiple retreival strategies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Info enter brain through the senses (eg eyes + ears). Stored in visual, acoustic or semantic codes

Back

Coding (also 'encoding')

Card 3

Front

A measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Memory for events that have happened in the past. This lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years. LTM has potentially unlimited duration and capacity and tends to be coded semantically

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Memory for immediate events. STMs are measured in seconds and minutes (ie a short duration). Will disappear unless rehearsed. Limited capacity of amount 4 items or chunks and tend to code acoustically. Sometimes referred to as Working Memory

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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