Types of LTM

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TYPES OF LONG TERM MEMORY (LTM)
Long term memory holds all the facts you have learnt, the skills you have practised and your personal memories. It can store a
large amount of information and it is said to have an unlimited capacity.
There are three types of long-term memory: procedural memory, semantic memory and episodic memory.
PROCEDURAL MEMORY
This is your memory for skills (procedures), when we perform particular tasks (such as swimming) we do not require our
conscious memory and therefore it is in the non-declarative strand-it is implicit and not usually conscious.
SEMANTIC MEMORY
This is declarative; it requires the conscious recall of facts. Semantic memory is the long-term memory for knowledge,
semantic implying meanings. It is thought to be hierarchically organised and in chronological order. It is systematically linked
to related information-through the use of semantics.
EPISODIC MEMORY
This is declarative; it requires the conscious recall of events. It is known as your personal memory. It is closely tied to time and
place.
Cohen (1993) argued that there was a distinction between the two types of episodic memory: autobiographical episodic
memory and experimental episodic memory.
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EPISODIC MEMORY
This is memory for specific life events that have personal meaning; an example is a remembrance of a specific birthday
party-18th, 21st etc. It is referred to as your flashbulb memory for remembering specific events and this is because of the
emotions attached to that memory: embarrassment, excitement, sadness etc.

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EXPERIMENTAL EPISODIC MEMORY
This is using semantic meaning in order to remember specific events or point in time. E.g. revising for the psychology exam.
KEY STUDY (BOWER ET AL, 1969)
Aim To investigate semantic categorisation in long-term memory.
Method Two groups of participants were presented with the same words to learn but the words were presented
differently. They were given four trials of 28 words either hierarchically organised on the page or randomly on
the page.…read more

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