Cognitive psychology (which is probably the most dominant approach today) approaches the way our brains process information, meaning the internal mental processes are important.
It is based on two main assumptions:
The study of mental processes is important in understanding behaviour.
The human mind works like a computer (the computer analogy), an information processor, just more complex, adapting to the environment, and with more mistakes. The basic idea is:
Input (from senses) --> Throughput (cognitive processes) --> Output (behaviour).
Cognitive psychology began to revolutionise psychology in the late ‘50s/early ‘60s and became the dominant paradigm by the ‘70s. Interest in mental processes had been gradually resurrected through the works of people such as Tolman and Piaget, but it was the arrival of the computer that gave…