Memory: Key studies

What is the memory layout?
sensory --> short term --> long term --> semantic
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Atkinson and Shiffrin
Split memory into 3 key parts: sensory register. short term memory and long term memory
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Short term memory?
held for seconds, maintained by reheasals, limited capacity and limited duration
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Long term memory?
unlimited capacity + duration
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Threw handful of beans into a box. Asked himself how many he saw after briefly looking at them. Accurate up to 8 or 9 beans then increased to only a 1/2 correct
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Tachtioscope --> displays patterns of dots for brief intervals masked by subsequent erasing pattern --> estimates of dots as a function of total number and variable interval
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what did he do?
extra viewing time up to 150 ms, more than 8 dots, extra viewing time makes little difference, limited factor --> visual memory
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pps asked to recall 12 items, max recall 4/5, if they have to recall one row, 100% performance, delayed by 1 sec - goes to 30%, in visual memory but decays rapidly
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flat mid point of the graph?
transfer to the long term memory
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short term capacity
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Atkinson and Shiffrin?
the modal model or multistore model of memory uses rehearsal to transfer into LTS
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What can rehearsal do?
imrpove memory but not sufficient or necessary
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Why isnt rehearsal necessary?
flat bit of the curve never at zero even for unrehearsed items
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why isnt rehearsal sufficient?
doesnt always work
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Baddeley and Hitch
use tasks that should fill up the STS (a sting of digits)
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secondary tasks?
sentence verification, semantic judgement, list learning, understanding of prose, all imposed not devastated
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What is the working model?
Central executive --> controls flow of information to two slavery systems: sketchpad and articulatory loop
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8 spatial spans, 6 nonsense spans
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phonological similarity effect?
poor recall of word lists where items sound similar even when items presented visually
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Baddeley et al. word length
serial recall as many words as you can read aloud in 2 seconds, span slower for longer words even when presented visually
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role of central executive?
poorly understood, control of behaviour based on action schemas
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episodic buffer?
allow interacton with LTM, hedonic detector - deal with emotions
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the embedded processes model?
STS is an activated component of the LTS
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What is the Simple model?
scale invariant model of perception and learning
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uses method of saving, having learned a list once, how much faster can he learn it a second time, forgetting function 'power function'
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tested 733 people's memory for Spanish taught at school, performance closely related to initial learning 50 years later, memory decayed over first few years and then levelled off
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Pps watch slides for 5 seconds recognition test 2 days later, 10,000 items, 83% successful, better with vivid pics
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Horowitz and Wolfe
Spot T among L, more L shapes but harder it is, even when theyre interchanged as if we dont look where we last saw them
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Konkle et al
conceptual similarity, perceptual similarity, store gist of pictures
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Tests ability of college teachers to recognise and identify previous students, eight years on, still evidence for recognition but no identificatio
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Young et al
Errors in everyday face processing, 22 pps kept diary for 8 weeks 6 each per day
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Schooler et al?
giving a verbal description of a face seems to impair memory of a face
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Melcher and Schooler
novice wine drinkers --> memories enhanced by verbalisation, intermediate wine drinkers --> impaired by verbalisation, expert not change
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Card 2


Atkinson and Shiffrin


Split memory into 3 key parts: sensory register. short term memory and long term memory

Card 3


Short term memory?


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Card 4


Long term memory?


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