LT5-Family/Household types and patterns

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 07-04-15 11:44
What is the definition of a nucleur family?
A stereotypical two generation family made up of a heterosexual couple with dependent offspring,
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Describe politicians and reight-wing sociologists' views on this type of family?
They are regarded as the ideal family type,
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Are they now regarded as the statistical norm?
No, only up until the 1980s were nucleur families regarded as the statistical norm,
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What is the first feature of the nucleur family based on the relationship between the adults?
The relationship between the adults is heterosexual and is based on romantic love and is reinforced by marrriage,
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Why is this feature a positive thing for the children?
As the children see their love and marriage as a sign of commitment and encourages family stability,
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What is another feature of the nucleur family based on gender roles?
They are traditionally defined- The man is the breadwinner and the women is the home carer,
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What is the last feautre of the nucleur family based on its affect on society?
It is assumed the family is a positive and beneficial institution,
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What is a positive evaluation of the nucleur family?
It provides a nurtuting, caring environment where children are socialised by both parents,
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However, what is a negative evaluation of the nucleur family?
There are beliefs that the nucleur family constitute a 'conservative ideology' about what families should be like and how family members behave. this view may be old-fashionned,
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What is the name for people who live alone through choice or not?
Singletons- One person households,
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Give five reasons for the increase in one person households?
1) Increase in separation and divroce, 2)Changing marriage patterns, 3)Living apart together. 4)Increasing choice, 5)Changing position of women
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Describe why an increase in separation and divorce leads to an increase in one person households?
As more divorces leads to a larger number of young men living alone because where children are involved they normally live with the mother,
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Describe why changing marriage patterrns leads to an increase in one person households?
As fewer people marry and more people delay marriages has meant more people spend periods lviing along,
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Describe why living apart together has lead to an increase in one person households?
Some people choose to live alone even though they are in a significant relaationship. This may reflect a preference for less formalised relationships or each person in a relationships wanting to keep their house,
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Describe how choice has lead to an increase in one person households?
As some people actively choose to be single. This creative singlehood is a lifestyle choice that allows independence and freedom,
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Describe how changing position in women has lead to an increase in one person households?
Womens;' improved educational and career prospects have meant they are less financially dependent on men and choose to concentrate on their career,
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What is a beanpole family?
Four generation families e.g.children, parents, grandparents, great-grandparents,
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What sociologist argues that we are more likely to experience what kind of ties to whom?
-Brennan, -He argues that we are more likely to experience vertical intergenerational ties (ties closert to grandparents and great grandparents),
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Why are we less likely to experience horizontal intergenerational ties?
Due to the extended family and how there are fewer aunts, uncles and cousins,
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Give another reason for the increase in the beanpole family?
They have emerged due to the ageing population, tendency of women to persue higher educaton and availability of divorce,
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Therefore, due to an increase in beanpole families, describe the availabilty of care?
Family members in between often provide care for elederly relatives and children,
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What is the definition of same sex relationships?
Gay male and lesbian female couples living together in an intimate relationship,
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Give three reasons for the possible increase in the same sex cohabiting couples?
1)More socially acceptable, 2)Secularisation, 3)Legal and social policy changes,
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Describe how secularisation has lead to an increase in same sex cohabiting couples?
As society becomes less religious they are less influenced by the Church's negative atitude to same sex relationships,
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For legal and social policy changes, what law was passed in 1967 allowing for male homosexual acts?
Male homosexual acts were decriminalised for consenting adults over the age of 21,
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What was another law passed when about adoption and what did it state?
-2002, -It allowed cohabiting couples, including gay, to have the same adoptionm rights as married couples,
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What is another law passed in 2004?
Civil Partnership Act- gave same sex couples the right to have their partnership legally recognised and therefore similar rights to married couples
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What is the definiton of cohabitation?
Living together but unmarried,
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What are five reasons for the increase in cohabitation?
1) Decline in stigma, 2)More socially acceptable, 3)Change in the position of women, 4)Secularisation, 5)Increase in divorce,
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Who is cohabitation more socially acceptable with?
Young people,
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Describe why the change in the position of women has lead to an increase in cohabitation?
Better educational performance and career prospects has given women a greater freedom to cohabit as they are less financially dependent on men,
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Describe why secularisation has lead to an increase in cohabitation?
The declining influence of religion has meant that people feel less pressured to marry,
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Describe how an increase in divorce has lead to an increase in cohabitation?
As cohabitation often becomes an attractive non-legally binding option after a failed marriage,
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How do the New Right view cohabitation and why?
They see it negatively as couples are more likely to split up then married couples which leads to a lone parent family if children are involved,
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Why do the New Right view lone parent families negatively?
As single parent families are seen as a less effective unit to socialise children,
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How to feminists view cohabitation and why?
-Positively, -As it allows women to weigh up relationships and opt out of it if it is oppressive.
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How do radical feminists view cohabitation?
They view cohabiting same sex couples as one way for women to escape patriarchal family structures,
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How does what sociologist describe the relationship between cohabitation and marriage about marriage still being important?
-Chester, -He claims cohabitation is just a step on the way to marriage and see if they are compatible for marriage,
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What percentage of cohabiting couples end in marriage?
75%
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What reason will most cohabiting couples marry?
If they have children
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How does what sociologist argue marriage is no logner important?
-Benjin, -He sees cohabitation as a lifestyle choice that is an attempt to move away for the constraints of patriarchal marriages,
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What evidence supports his views that cohabitation is to move away from the constraints of patriarchal marriage?
As cohabiting couples are more likely to have a more equal domestic division of labour,
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What is the definition of a lone parent family?
A parents without a partner living with their dependent children,
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What are five reasons for the increase in lone parent families?
1) Increase in separation and divorce, 2)Cohabitation break-up, 3)Increase in never married single women choosing to have children, 4)Changing attitudes, 5)Changing position of women,
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What evidence supports the fact that cohabitation break up leads to an increase in lone parent families?
As cohabiting couples with children are twice as likely to break up as married couples with children,
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Describe how changing attitudes has lead to an incrrease in lone parent families?
Declining stigma of havign births outside of marriage,
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Describe how changing positions in women has lead to an icnrease in lone parent families?
As better qualifications and career prospects mean women are less economically dependent on men,
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Who are lone parent families mainly headed by?
Women,
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What is the first reason why lone parent families are mainly headed by women due to beliefs?
There is the belief that women are biologically suited to an expressive nurture role,
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What is the first reason why lone parent families are mainly headed by women due to custody?
Divorce courts are more likely to give custody to females,
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What is the first reason why lone parent families are mainly headed by women due to women's choice?
Many women are single by choice e.g. to get out of an abusive relationship, financially able to bring up a child without the father, impact of feminist ideas,
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Give one sociologists' views from the New Right on why there is an increase lone parent families?
Murray, -He see the growth in lone parent families due to the over generous welfare system that provides benefits to unmarried mothers and children,
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What does Murray believe the welfare system creates to lone parent families?
A 'dependency culture',
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Why does Murray and the New Right view lone parent families negativelly due to impact on children and why?
He argues they are less likely to do well at school and more likely to turn to crime as they lack a male role model and authority figure,
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What is an evaluation of his view based on Murrays' argument that children will do less well at school?
There is no proven casual link between lone parent families and educational underachievement and crime- These problems usually occur from the poverty most lone parents experience,
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What is another evaluation point based on Murray's arguments about the welfare system?
-The welfare system is far from generous- many lone parent families are living in poverty,
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What is the definition of reconstituted families?
Families where one or both adults in a couple bring children from a previous relationship,
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What is the pattern for reconstituted families?
Increasing,
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Give five reasons for the increase in reconstitutued families?
1) Increase in separation and divorce, 2) Cohabitation break-up, 3)Increase in never married single women havinh children, 4)Changing attitudes, 5) Changing positions of women,
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Why are step families are risk of poverty?
As there are more children to support and the step-father may have to support children from a previous relationship,
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What is another problem with step families about tensions?
More likely to experience tensions e.g. divided loyalties- lack of clear norms about how individuals should behave,
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What is the definition of the extended family?
It contains relatives in additon to the nucleur families e.g. grandparents, aunts, cousins,
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What is Parsons views on the extended family?
They were important in pre-industrial society but replaced by the nucleur in industrial societies,
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What is what sociologists views on the extended family about research in Swansea in 1960s?
-Bell, -He found the extended family was common amongst the working class as they provided important domestic support between mothers and daughters,
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What sociologist argued against Bell's research with recent reseach in Swansea and found what?
-Charles, -She found that the classic 3 generation family living under one roof has all but disappeard,
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Where did Charles suggest the extended family hadnt disappeared and what did she find?
-Bangladeshis, -She found contact between mother and daughters were still high, but contact and support was low between brothers and sisters,
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What is the definition of dispersed extended families?
When kin are geographically separated but maintain frequent contact through visits and phone calls,
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What did what sociologist argue about the changes in extended families and what did he say?
-Willmott, -He argued extended families have declined but not disappeared. Instead they exist as 'dispersed extended families',
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What does what sociologist argue about dispersed extended families amongst Black Caribbean families?
-Chamberlain, -He talks of 'multiple nucleur families' amongst Black Caribbean families which are geographically dispersed but relatives have lots of contact and support,
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For social class differences in family/household types, describe what the working class are more likely to experience?
Poverty- More likely to live in poorer housing, less likely to go on holidays etc,
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How does this affect the working classes' life chances?
They are more likely to experience ill health, unemployment, low educational achievement,
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In turn, how does this affect the family and then society?
They are more likely to break up so mroe likely to experience divorce, leadign to greater chances of poverty and more reliance on the welfare system,
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For social class differences in family/household types, describe the middle classes' childcentredness?
They are more likely to take an interest in their child's education, leading to a stable family structure and less likely to divorce,
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Describe the middle classes ability to afford childcare?
Middle class more likely to get help of nannies than the working class so more able to work,
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For ethnic differences in family/household types, what family structure do most black familes have and evidence?
-Female headed lone parent families, -50% of black Caribbean of African families with dependent children are lone parents,
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What are three reasons for black family structures?
1) Slavery, 2)High rates of black male unemployment, 3)Choice,
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Describe why slavery has lead to a high proportion of female headed lone parent families?
AS in the past, couples were sold separately and children stayed with the mother, establishing a pattern of family life that remain today,
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Describe why high rates of black male unemployment has led to a high proportion of female headed lone parent families?
As black males are unable to support thier families and so leads to desertion or marital breakdown,
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Describe how choice has also lead to high proportion of female headed lone parent families?
many black women place a high value on independence and individualism,
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What is an evaluation of black familiy structures?
Although they are portrayed negatively as disorganised, and underclass of welfare dependents and breeds crime, black feminists argue that many 'lone' parent families are stable and supportive,
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What is the trend for multicultural families?
There is an increase in families where partners come from different ethnic bakcgrounds,
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What is the reason for more multicultural famileis and why?
Choice as people can choose a partner, whatever their ethnic group that meets their personal needs and wishes,
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Describe the type of families Asians will most likely have?
larger families as they have more children and are most likely nucleur,
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However, what family structure can they also have commonly seem amongst Sikhs and East African Asians?
Extended families,
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What are four reasons for Asian family structures?
1)Younger age profile of Asians 2)Place a value on extended families, 3)Marriage, 4) More traditional views,
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Describe how the younger age profile of Asians has led to larger families?
As there is a higher proportion in childbearign age,
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Describe how marriage has led to a nucleur families?
As Asian families are more likely to marry and marry younger and less likely to divorce,
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Describe how Asians familiies are more traditional in their views and how this leads to extended families?
AS they are more traditional in their gender roles and family values and therefore feel a strong sense of duty to assist kin in economic and social ways,
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However, what is an evaluation for this view on Asian family structures?
It ignores the religion between Asian groups and their country of origin,
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Card 2

Front

Describe politicians and reight-wing sociologists' views on this type of family?

Back

They are regarded as the ideal family type,

Card 3

Front

Are they now regarded as the statistical norm?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the first feature of the nucleur family based on the relationship between the adults?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is this feature a positive thing for the children?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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