Learning Explanation of Substance Misuse

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What is this explanation based on
operant conditioning: positive reinforcement and positive punishment
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Define positive reinforcement
addition of something positive in response to desired stimuli
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Outline how positive reinforcement is involved
there is the addition of the effects of the drug e.g. euphoria, from peer approval and also from feeling 'grown up'
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Define positive punishment
addition of something negative in response to an undesired stimuli
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Outline how negative reinforcement is involved
addition of withdrawal symptoms to the undesirable stimulus of stopping taking the drugs. means the user continues to use them
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Which works long term: pos reinforcement or pos punishment?
positive punishment: the effects of the drug wear off as tolerance sets in
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What negative factors of drugs does the positive punishment override
Economic stresses, relationships with people etc.
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STRENGTH: practical applications
practical applications to fairly effective drug treatments e.g. token economy
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STRENGTH: cultural differences
explains why there are differences of drug rates in different cultures because different stigmas around drugs e.g. more teens smoke weed because seen as 'cool' which would act as positive reinforcement
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STRENGTH: most popular drugs
the most used drugs have either euphoric or relaxing effects which would be strong positive reinforcers
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WEAKNESS: smoking
doesn't explain why people continue before they become addicted to take drugs that have negative initial effects e.g. cigarettes
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WEAKNESS: reductionist
doesn't take into consideration individual differences and why some people get addicted to drugs and others do not
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WEAKNESS: reductionist
doesn't consider the genetic links between substance misuse that have been suggested by lots of research
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define positive reinforcement

Back

addition of something positive in response to desired stimuli

Card 3

Front

Outline how positive reinforcement is involved

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define positive punishment

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline how negative reinforcement is involved

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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