Language Matters

  • Created by: gemw11
  • Created on: 06-03-18 20:14
The study of language at a particular moment in time
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The study of language across time
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What is an acceptable word combination by first-language speakers
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Formal Register Characteristics
Low frequency lexis, passive constructions
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The speech habits peculiar to a particular person
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Halliday talks of two main types of variation in language. These are:
Social and Function
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Words and phrases that cannot be fully understood without contextual information
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Omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are not needed
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In Halliday's discussion of the functions of language, the heuristic function is:
Language used to learn and explore the environment
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The language or dialect spoken by people from a country/region
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Jakobson broad functions of language
Affective and Referential
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Frozen Language
Language that never changes whenever it is used
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Factors involved in context, Halliday
Setting, Participants, Activity
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Hapax Legomena
Measurement of unique words in a text
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The study and classification of speech sounds (pronounciation)
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Study of rules governing the use of sounds, and how those sounds are organised in a language
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Smallest unit of meaningful sound
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Prescriptive use of grammar
Not natural rules, must usually be taught, often reflect value judgements
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Descriptive rules
Natural, known intuitively, need not to be taught
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The meaning of a word, phase or text
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Language in context. Making sense of utterances in a sentence
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Discourse Analysis
Like pragmatics but performed over a large body of text, a conversation
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The set if all words and phrases in a languag
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The study of language in relation to social factors eg class, regional
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The study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation
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The study of forms shapes and structure
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refers to specific lexical and grammatical choices made by speakers
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Characterised by social/regional variation
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Jakobsons 6 Functions
Emotive/Expressive, Referential/Informative, Conative/Directive, Phatic/Interactional, Metalinguistic, Poetic
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Jakobson: Emotive/Expressive function
The mind of the writer/speaker to express their feelings eg autobiography
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Jakobson: Referential/ Informative
The external situation, the facts of a topic, included reported ideas eg textbook
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Jakobson: Conative/ Directive
The reader/hearer, the addressee, to convince readers, persuade them eg advertisements/ propaganda
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Jakobson: Phatic/ Interational
Language used to establish or maintain contact between the addresser and the addressee, spoken code/ conversation, written code: naturally
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Jakobson: Metalinguistic
Language is used to explain itself (Questions or explanations of terminology)
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Jakobson: 3 Types of Metalinguistic Function
Dialect, Sociolect, Idiolect
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Jakobson: Poetic/ Aesthetic
Language is used in a creative way (rhymes, similes, metaphors)
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The destination of the message from the sender- decoding function
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The originator of message or the information source selects and codes the message
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The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through channel
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Jakobson 1960: 6 Factors of Communication
Context, Addresser, Addressee, Contact between an addresser and addressee, Common Code, Message
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Addresser-Centred Communication is
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Addressee-centred Communication is
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Context-Centred Communication is
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Contact-Centred Communication is
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Message-Centred communication is
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Code-Centred communication is
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Informal Register
High frequency lexis, Active constructions, Use of contractions
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Less formal standard English, interruptions allowed eg Employee to Employer
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According to David Crystal , what are constraints on language:
Channel, Code, Message form, Subject Matter
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Linguistic Determinism
Strong version, All Human thoughts and actions are restricted by language
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Linguistic Influence
Weaker version, Language shapes our thinking and behaviour to some extent
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Three levels of social reality that provide context to and affect the text
Personal, Cultural, Social and Class Structure
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Language. Overarching system of rules, standardised language
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Speaking, Language in use (Can be spoken or written but is non- standardised)
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Signifier +Signified
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Arbitary nature of the sign-
No natural link between words and what they represent, Context (Structure/code) enables meaning
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A word in a given chain, sequence or sentence is given meaning by the syntax of the sentence
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Meaning in relation to all the other words (related terms) which might take its place in a sentence
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Meaning is purely relational (contextual)
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The real word object
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According to Shannon 1948, what is her language graph?
Info source, Transmitter, Noise Source, Receiver, Destination
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Halliday: Systemic Functional Linguistics
Accounts for the syntactic function of language, it places the function of language as central (what language does, how it does it)
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Halliday 1975: Instrumental
Language used to fulfil a need on the part of the speaker
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Halliday 1975: Regulatory
Language used to influence the behaviour of others
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Halliday 1975: Interactional
Language used to develop social relationships and ease the process of interaction
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Halliday 1975: Personal
Language used to express the personal preferences and the identity of the speaker
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Halliday 1975: Representational
Language used to exchange information
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Halliday 1975: Heuristic
Language used to learn and explore the environment
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Halliday 1975: Imaginative
Language used to explore the imagination
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Other cards in this set

Card 2




The study of language across time

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Card 4


Formal Register Characteristics


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