Increasing Food Production

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  • Created by: Becca96
  • Created on: 31-03-14 19:10
What are the five ways in which food production has been increased?
1) The Green Revolution 2) Genetic modification 3) Commercialisation 4) Land colonisation/reform 5) Appropriate technology solutions
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When did the Green Revolution begin?
1940s
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Which technologies did the Green Revolution spread across the world? (5)
1) High yield varieties 2) Monocultures 3) Irrigation technologies 4) Agrochemicals 5) Mechanisation
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Give details about the Green Revolution in India - when did the scheme start, what was introduced and what was the result?
1) Started in 1961 2) Agrochemicals, high yield varieties and irrigation technologies for wheat and rice 3) Yields tripled by the 1990s
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What were the negative effects of the Green Revolution? (3)
1) Bankruptcy of small farms that cannot afford technology - leads to rural unemployment and food shortages 2) Food security at risk - monocultures can be wiped out by one pest/disease, no alternative to rely on 3) Intensive farming bad for enviro.
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How is intensive farming environmentally damaging? (5)
1) Monocultures reduce biodiversity 2) Irrigation causes water logging, groundwater depletion and salinisation 3) Agrochemicals cause pollution 4) Mechanisation inc. soil erosion and dec. soil fertility 5) Pesticide use leads to resistant superpests
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When was genetic modification of food introduced?
1990s
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What are the possible characteristics that a plant can obtain through genetic modification? (5)
1) Produce pesticides 2) Herbicide/pesticide tolerant 3) Resistant to disease 4) High yielding 5) Resistant to harsh environmental conditions e.g. drought or frost
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Give three examples of genetically modified animal species in development.
1) Fast-maturing salmon 2) Pigs providing low-fat bacon 3) Cows producing enriched milk
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Give examples of genetically modified plant species and their new characteristics.
'Bt maize' and 'bt cotton' contain a gene from bacteria that allows them to produce a pest-repellent toxin. 20% less insecticide required.
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What are the known disadvantages of genetic modification? (3)
1) Agrochemical resistant crops may encourage increase in agrochemical use - cause pollution 2) Cross-pollination may occur and transfer herbicide-resistance genes to weeds 3) Pesticide-producing plants may harm non-pest species e.g. butterflies
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What does land colonisation involve?
Use of land not previously developed for farming, e.g. rainforest.
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Give an example of land colonisation. Quote figure.
2 million hectares of the Amazon are cleared each year for subsistence and commercial farming.
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What are the disadvantages of land colonisation? (2)
1) Environmental damage - deforestation 2) Potential conflict with indigenous populations
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What does land reform involve?
The redistribution of land e.g. land previously owned by government is given to the people.
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Give an example of land reform. Quote figures.
In Albania in the 1990s, 216 large state farms were redistributed to create 380,000 small farms for previous state farm workers.
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What is commercialisation and what does it involve?
The move from subsistence farming to commercial farming, using technologies associated with the Green Revolution.
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What do commercial farms produce?
Cash crops and high value produce - often for export.
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Give an example of commercialisation.
Commercialisation of small farms in Kenya since the 1960s has resulted in it becoming the 4th largest exporter of tea. Tea is Kenya's main source of foreign income.
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What are the disadvantages of commercialisation? (2)
1) Best land gets used for commercial farming, which can lead to food shortages if most of the food is exported, and poor quality land is left for local population. 2) Involves a shift to Green Revolution technologies which have their own problems.
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What are appropriate technology solutions?
Appropriate to the local climate and environment, and the wealth, skills and needs of the people. Tend to be simple and low cost, rely on local resources and do not require outside support, expensive equipment or fuel.
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When was the treadle pump first developed in Bangladesh and what does it do?
Treadle pump developed in Bangladesh in 1980s. Human powered, irrigates small land plots.
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How much does the treadle pump cost and how does it affect farmers' profits?
Costs $7 to buy but can increase annual profits by up to $100.
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Besides farmers, who benefits from the use of treadle pumps? (4)
1) Local workshops 2) Village sellers 3) Well diggers 4) Pump installers
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What is the main disadvantage of appropriate technology solutions?
High labour intensity.
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Card 2

Front

When did the Green Revolution begin?

Back

1940s

Card 3

Front

Which technologies did the Green Revolution spread across the world? (5)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give details about the Green Revolution in India - when did the scheme start, what was introduced and what was the result?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the negative effects of the Green Revolution? (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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