Food Supply Issues

this is the food supply issues optional topic for AS AQA geography

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  • Created by: lucy
  • Created on: 03-01-13 10:14
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  • Food Supply Issues
    • CAP
      • European union policy
        • aims
          • food security
          • food safety
          • support for farmers
          • cheap food
        • over production
          • wine lakes, butter mountain,  beef mountains
        • Capital intensive farming
          • increased use of fertilisers and pesticides, damages environment and bigger machinerey
        • habitat loss
      • Subsidies
        • payments to farmers to grow certain products
        • fair living standards
        • food security
        • Costs to pay farmers
        • over production causes export dumping
        • disrupts market and causes problems in developing  countries
      • Import Tarrifs
        • Tax added to imported goods
        • protect prices
        • prevent cheap imported products
        • affect international production
      • Intervention schemes
        • EU buys produce from farmer
        • improves food security as always sell
        • stock is stored for export or disposal
        • guaranteed  minimum price
        • cost of transport, storage and disposal
        • over  production
        • expensive  food
        • export  dumping
      • quotas
        • Limited production and imports
        • Support prices
        • prevents cheap imports
        • influence international trade
      • Reform
        • Environmental stewardship
          • protect wild flowers, birds and insects
          • money to grow field hedges and establish ponds
          • includes hedgerow management, buffer strips, pond management and bird/flower conservation
          • £30 per hectare per year
          • 3 levels
            • 2) organic  entry level stewardship
            • 1) entry level stewardship
            • 3) higher level stewardship
        • Set-aside
          • reduces cultivation by paying farmers to leave land = decrease in productivity
          • voluntary in 1980's, forced in 1990's
          • 20% of land reserved so can be bought
          • set aside plants can't be out between april and July so an increase in productivity
          • area grows non food - oil/wax
          • now abandoned due to high food prices
        • Diversification
          • encourage farmers to develop
          • rare breeds, rural business and help to go organic
          • reduce subsidy depencancy
          • promote enterprise
      • CASE STUDIES FOR MANAGING FOOD SUPPLY - CHINA = SELF  SUFFICIENCY AND BANGLEDESH= CANT PRODUCE ENOUGH TO MEET DEMAND
    • Green Revolution
      • Pros
        • Cultivate the land quicker - food gets produced faster
        • higher yielding crop variety
        • develop pest immune species - can therefore grow crops anywhere theoretically
        • grow a wider variety for diets
        • replant same crops without having to rotate the field planted in.
        • any crop grown any where
        • cash crops exported for profit - Costa rica coffee beans
        • eliminate hunger from poorest countries
        • increased standerd of living in LEDC's as they earn more money to buy resources
      • Cons
        • Needs lots of fertiliser and pesticide - bad economically as costs lots to buy and   environmentally
        • increase in  rural debt - pay for input and closes down local farmers
        • HYV need increase weed control so are more susceptible to pests
        • increase income gap
        • increase rural-urban migration
        • increased unemployment
        • Salinisation of soil
        • dependant on TNC's
        • mono crops are easily wiped out
        • pest resistance creates super pests
        • expensive equipment
        • increase in food shortages as staple food is replaced by cash crops
        • increase in hunger and pverty
        • Locals lose land to grow food
    • GM Crops
      • Transferring desirable characteristics by combining 2 strands of DNA - can be different species
      • Pro GM
        • consistent and reliable yeilds
        • even out food distribution
        • more efficient as crops wont be lost to pests
        • environmental benefits - no pesticides
        • reduce input of chemicals
        • cheaper food
        • Could solve worldwide food shortages
      • Anti GM
        • junger is caused by distribution problem not production
        • only sorts symptoms not problem
        • affects human health
        • increases wealth gap
        • pollen from plants may spread to non GM crops
          • Spreads modification uncontrolably
        • long term environmental effects
    • TNC's affect food production
      • Cargill
        • Production
          • sells fertilisers, farm equipment and seeds, buys crops and produces own food
        • Processing
          • Owns processing plants across the world
        • Distribution
          • Run from Switzerland and employs locals to trade products
      • Advantages
        • Lots of food cheap
        • Wider variety of food avaliable
        • Invest in research and product development
        • Provides jobs in host countries
        • An increase in economic activity
      • Disadvantages
        • Control price of product - some countries cannot afford them
        • Small local business's cant compete with these large TNC's - go out of business
        • Environmental problems - intensive farming, carbon footprint etc.
        • Reduced nutritional value - Processed and transport food
    • geo politics of food: all countries want food security so make sure supply isn't disrupted, food shortages cause health issues and social/political instability, huge part of economy, agricultural policies which protect production and control import, developed food countries food dump to get rid of surplus which limits countries development as they can't join the marked
      • CASE STUDY = Costa Rica and  it's Coffee beans!!!
    • Changes in demand
      • Demand in MEDC's
        • Causes high airmiles
          • Increase in biofuels - Brazil
        • If we find better supply elsewhere, we use it - good for us, bad for suppliers
        • selling food to LEDC's
        • move from subsistence to comercial farming
        • benefits poor farmers
        • Concerns
          • Decline in domestic consumption
          • CO2 emissions and climate change from air miles
          • Deforest for cash crops
          • chemical  fertilizers  damage  environment
      • All year demand
        • Import lots from other countries
        • UK heated greenhouses vs air mles
      • Organic produce
        • No fertalisers
        • animals produce less product
        • Tastes better
        • more expensive
        • better for animal
      • Local and regional sourcing
        • local  independent  shops
        • Supermarket
        • Initiatives
          • Farmers markets
    • Food supplies in globalising economy
      • Vertical integration - 1 company owns multiple stages in production
      • Horizontal  integration - TN agribusiness eg mcdonalds beef burger gets bigger as company
      • environmental impact
    • Sustainable food supplies - leads to irreversible soil degradation, requires increased irrigation, removes nutrients and no replenishment,  effects supply by global climate, dumping causes relying on aid.
      • improving sustainablilty
        • intensification  through  diversification
        • on-farm and off-farm activities
        • extensive systems
        • intensification through specialisation
      • Causes of unsustainable
        • Resource imbalance
        • rural inequlities
        • trade relations
        • Policy failure
        • unsuitable technologies
  • cash crops exported for profit - Costa rica coffee beans

Comments

Dale McNerlin

Good Piece of Work :D x


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