Human geog

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  • Created by: djfart
  • Created on: 26-11-12 18:29
Fertility measures Crude Birth rate-total live births per 1000 of population, no account of age/gender, simple widely used.
General fertility rate-no of live births per 100 women in normal reproductive age group (15-44) per year. ,takes into account age and gender of the population, more reliable than CBR, only deals with female in specific age group.
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Total fertility rate (tfr) avg no. of children a women will have during her reproductive years. TFR is lower in MEDCs, more reliable measure of development, countries can be compared.
Age specific Fertility rate- no. of live births per 100 men in specific age bands, LEDCs women at early age, indicates status of women in society
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Mortality Measures
Crude Death rate- total deaths per 1000 per year, takes no account of age of death, simple+widely used.
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Age specific mortality rate- specific age bands, used by insurance companies to calculate risk of death to specific age groups,good indicator of lifestyle deaths
Infant mortality rate- number of deaths/1000 in 1st year of life, only records deaths of children, useful for comparing levels of development.
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Maternal mortality rate- no. of deaths per 1000 live births, wb uses refinement of the measure with a ratio: Sierra Leone 1:8 sweden1:17400. Reliable.
Life Expectancy- Number of years a person is expected to live- assuming current mortality rates are maintained. Mortality levels depend on health and welfare conditions, globally life expectancy increasing through the 20th cent, MEDCs-77 LEDCs-55-66
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Global trends in Fertility and Mortality.
MEDCs- Europe-ageing pop,decreasing total pop, currently 736m, expected 685 by 2050, decreased fertility rate-recent increase in Sweden, uk, Finland due to government benefits, eastern europe-outmigration of econ active decreased TFR
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East Asia- Taiwan, S.Korea, Japan, Low TFR, Japan-1.3, aging pop, by 2050, 40% of the population will be over 65, Increased DR
N. America+Oceana- Immigrants keep fert levels high, Usa 2.1 due to growing hispanic population with a TFR of 3.0, Traditional TFR of white american was 1.9
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LEDCs- Asia- pop 4 billion, will increase by 1.4 billion from 2008-2050 despite china's O.C policy, youthful population structure, DR 7/1000, India TFR 3.6
Africa and Middle east- Highest fertility levels and worlds highest death rate with 15/1000, TFR for Continent 4.9, 2008-987million people in africa 2009 1 billion
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Factors Infuencing Fertility : Economic-LEDCs high CBR eg 23/1000 compared to 36/1000 in least developed, MEDCs low CBR- availability of c'ception, no economic need for children, Children used for labour supply in LEDCs for subsistence farming
Social-Uneducated= more children, MEDCs low TFR ,aging pop, LEDCs less avialability of C'ception, MEDCs-low IMR,healthcare, vacinations, Africa 28% married use c'ception,L.america-71%, one child policy China
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Political- Government offering tax refeif, maternity leave, government can offer incentives for larger families, overpopulated-anti-natalist e.g. one child policy china, Poorly educated families encouraged to undergo sterilisation to reduce TFR.
Cultural- Catholic Church, c'ception, Catholic countries large CBR- Exception Italy- lowest FR in europe, MEDCs -women have more access to education- lower FR, Islamic-no equal rights, FR higher, parents with females may continue untill male
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Enviornmental MEDCs- inner city, more jobs, younger pop, higher FR. Remote areas e.g. H+I out migration-low fert. LEDCs Kenya-subsistence farming- more chilren.
Factors Influencing Mortality. Economic- HIgh income=better healthcare, nutrition, care for the elderly. Life expectancy MEDCs 77 years in 2008 LEDCs- 38 in Zambia. LEDCs have high IM- not enough £ for vacinations/ boosters
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Social- Sanitation-unable to afford water pumps, waterbourne diseases- Cholera-untreatable in LEDCs. In MEDCs vacination programmes wiped out many diseases- low CDR
Political-Changes to agriculture in china in 1960's causes death of 30 million from famine. Africa-war and Conflict- increased DR. MEDCs promotion about smoking, obesity linked to cancer diabeties etc.
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Cultural- Some put higher values on males children e.g. china OCP meaning females abandoned/killed
Enviornmental- respiratory disease near factories/ air pollution, spread of disease-malariai, cholora, typhoid common in tropical climates. Kenya-Child Mortality Re 109/1000 in rural areas, 88/1000 in urban areas.
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Demographic Transition Model- Stage 1- hiogh staionary, no contries at this stage. High BR- children need for farming, lack of family planning and birth Control, High IM- parent have lots of chilren in hope that some will reach infancy.
Stage 2- early expanding. Decline in DR/BR. Social, Improved medical care, hygene, improvements in transport-doctors, food. Afghanistan BR 39.5 DR 14.8
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Stage 3- Late Expanding. Decline in DR/high BR. Increased desire for Material possesions- less desire for large families. 1945 British Welfare state- lower IM rate , one child policy-free ed, priority housing. Brazil BR 17.7 DR 6.4
Stage 4- low stationary. Low BR, women following careers, family planning, c'ceptives,sterilisation, abortion, Increased desire for possesions. Low DR Improved Healthcare,hygene, water supplies UK BR 12.2 DR 9.3
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Card 2

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Age specific Fertility rate- no. of live births per 100 men in specific age bands, LEDCs women at early age, indicates status of women in society

Back

Total fertility rate (tfr) avg no. of children a women will have during her reproductive years. TFR is lower in MEDCs, more reliable measure of development, countries can be compared.

Card 3

Front

Crude Death rate- total deaths per 1000 per year, takes no account of age of death, simple+widely used.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Infant mortality rate- number of deaths/1000 in 1st year of life, only records deaths of children, useful for comparing levels of development.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Life Expectancy- Number of years a person is expected to live- assuming current mortality rates are maintained. Mortality levels depend on health and welfare conditions, globally life expectancy increasing through the 20th cent, MEDCs-77 LEDCs-55-66

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