Hormonal Communication

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What are endocrine glands?
A group of specialised cells which secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
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Give examples of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland and their function
Growth hormone- Stimulates growth, Anti-Diuretic Hormone- Controls water reabsorption in the kidneys
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Pineal Gland
Produces Melatonin- Involved in reproductive development and daily cycles (e.g. tiredness)
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Thyroid Gland
Produces Thyroxine- Controles rate of metabolism & rate glucose is used up
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Thymus Gland
Thymosin- Stimulates production and maturation of white blood cells
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What is an exocrine gland?
A group of cells which are specialised to secrete chemicals through ducts into organs or onto the surface of the body
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What are hormones?
Chemical messengers- Can be steroids, proteins, glycoproteins, polypeptides, amines or tyrosine derivatives
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How do hormones carry out their functions? (how are they transported etc)
They are secreted directly into the blood stream and travel in the blood plasma, they bind to receptors on target cells, which in turn triggers a response
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What are the 2 types of hormones?
Steroid and non-steroid
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Steroid Hormones
Lipid-soluble so they can pass through the lipid component of the cell membrane, they bind to the steroid receptors inside cell, hormone-receptor complex acts as a transcription factor, either inhibits or facilitates transcription of a specific gene
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Non-steroid Hormones
Hydrophilic so cant pass through membrane, binds to receptors on cell surface membrane, triggers cascade reaction mediated by chemicals known as secondary messengers
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Compare hormonal communication with neuronal communication
Hormonal- Chemical, travels by blood plasma, slow, travels around all of body but only effects target organs, wide spread, long-lasting Neuronal- Nerve impulses, rapid, localised, short lived
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What are the adrenal glands?
2 small glands on top of the kidneys
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The adrenal cortex
The outer region of the adrenal gland, produces hormones vital to life (eg. cortisol)
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The adrenal Medulla
The inner region of the adrenal gland, produces non-essential hormones like adrenaline which helps the body cope with stress
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What are the 3 main types of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex?
Glucocorticoids- (includes cortisol) regulates metabolism, blood pressure, immune response and suppress inflammatory reactions, Mineralocorticoids- Control blood pressure, Androgens- release sex hormones
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When does the adrenal medulla release hormones?
When the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated, when the body is stressed
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Adrenaline
Increases heart rate sending blood quickly to muscles and brain, raises glucose levels to give energy
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Noradrenaline
Works with adrenaline, increased heart rate, pupils widen, widen air passages in lungs, narrowing blood vessels in non-essential organs
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Card 2

Front

Give examples of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland and their function

Back

Growth hormone- Stimulates growth, Anti-Diuretic Hormone- Controls water reabsorption in the kidneys

Card 3

Front

Pineal Gland

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Thyroid Gland

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Thymus Gland

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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