Nervous and hormone communication, CGP

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Responding to their enviroment

  • Animals increase their chances of suvival by responding to changes in thei external enviroment, e.g by avoiding harmful enviroments such as places that are too hot or too cold
  • They also respond to changes in their internal enviroment to make sure that the conditions are always optimal for their metabolism
  • Plants also increase their chances of survival by responding to changes in their enviroment
  • Any change in the internal or external enviroment is called a stimulus

Receptors detect stimuli and effectors produce a response

  • Receptors detech stimuli - they can be cells or proteins on cell surface membanes. There are loads of different types of receptors that detect different stimuli
  • Effector are cells that bring about a response to a stimulus, to product an effect. Effectors include muscle cells and cells found in glands e.g pancreas
  • Recepors communicate with effectors via the nervous system or the hormonal system or sometimes both

The nervous system sends information are electrical impulses

  • The nervous system is made up of a complex netwok of cells called neurones. The three main types of neurone:
  • Sensory neurones transmit electrical impulses from receptors to the central nervous system
  • Motor neurones transmit electrical impulses from the CNS to effectors
  • Relay neurones trasmit electical impulses between sensory neurones and motor neurons
  • Stimulus is detected by receptor cells and an electrical impulse is sent along a sensory neurone
  • When an electrical…


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