Nervous and hormonal communication

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  • Nervous and Hormonal Communication
    • Receptors and effectors
      • Receptors detect stimuli - can be cells or proteins on cell surface membranes
      • Effectors respond to stimulus - e.g. muscle cells, gland cells
      • Receptors       communicate with effectors via the nervous or hormonal system or both
    • The Nervous System
      • Sensory neurones - transmit electrical impulses from receptors to CNS
      • Motor neurones - transmit electrical impulses from CNS to effectors
      • Relay Neurones - transmit electrical impulses between sensory and motor
      • Nervous Communication
        • 1) receptor cells detect stimulus
        • 2) Electrical impulse sent along the sensory neurone
        • 3) Electrical impulses reaches end of neurone and neurotransmiters send info across the synapse to the next neurone
        • 4) CNS processes the info, decides the response and sends impulses along motor n to an effector
      • The Nervous Response
        • 1) electrical impulse reaches end of neurone - neurotransmitters secreted directly onto cell - nervous response is LOCALISED
        • 2) After job is done done neurotransmitters are removed so their effect is short lived
    • Simple  Reflexes
      • Rapid, involuntary response to stimuli
      • Automatic  response as communication bypasses concious part of the brain but passes spinal cord
      • Protective mechanism to avoid body damage
      • Reflex arc
      • stimulus > recptor > sensory > relay to CNS > motor > effectors > Response
    • The Hormonal system
      • Made of glands and hormones (mammals)
      • Gland = group of specialised cells which secrete a useful substance e.g. hormones
      • Hormones =  chemical         messengers some are protein some are steroids
      • Hormones are secreted when gland is stimulated
      • Hormones diffuse directly into blood and taken around body by the circulatory system
      • Hormones will only bind to specific receptors on a target cell triggering a response in that cell
      • Hormonal response
        • Lasts longer than neurotransmitters as they are broken down more slowly
        • Hormones travel through the whole body so the response may be widespread if the target cells are widespread
  • Protective mechanism to avoid body damage


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