History Surgery

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 15-06-15 11:08
What were the most common forms of surgical operations in the 19th century?
Amputations
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What two things did people die from due to amputations?
Blood loss or infection
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Where did cutting for the stone surgery take place in the body?
Bladder
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What is an anaesthetic?
A substance that affects your nervous system so that you're less aware of sensation and don't feel pain.
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What is a tourniquet?
Something that is tied around a part of the body to put pressure on a blood vessel and stop the loss of blood.
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What surgeon accidently cut off a patient's testicles when amputating their leg?
Robert Liston
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What was Robert Liston's record time for cutting off a patient's leg?
28 seconds
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What clothes did surgeons and assistants where during surgery?
Ordinary clothes
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In 1799 Humphrey Davy accidently discovered that inhaling what made you less aware of pain?
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
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From 1844-45 who used nitrous oxide when extracting teeth in dentistry?
Horace Wells (dentist in the USA)
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In 1846 William Morton discovered what anaesthetic was more long lasting and went on to use it?
Ether
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What other surgeon used ether in surgery?
Robert Liston whilst amputating a patient's leg.
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What were the problems associated with ether?
Sometimes made patients vomit, irritated patients' lungs, highly flammable, produced very deep sleep and had to be carried in large glass bottles.
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In 1850 James Simpson used what anaesthetic with his invited doctors which was very effective?
Chloroform
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Where was James Simpson a surgeon?
Edinburgh
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What famous person used chloroform during the birth of her eighth child in 1853?
Queen Victoria
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What was the main difficulty with chloroform?
Correct dosage
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Who died from an overdose of chloroform?
Hannah Greener, a 14 year old girl, who was having her toenail removed.
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Why did not everybody support the use of anaesthetics?
Victorians were very religious and thought it interfered with God, some distrusted them as they were new, some doctors thought it was better for patients to die and the number of patients who died increased with the use of anaesthetics.
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What was the South American poison used as an anaesthetic in 1942?
Curare
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Who was the first man to be knighted for his services in medicine?
James Simpson
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When did Simpson die and how many people attend his funeral?
1870 and 30,000 people.
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Give two common infections that occured after surgery.
Gangrene and sepsis.
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What is an antiseptic?
Something that fights against sepsis and the microbes that create infection.
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What does aseptic mean?
Sterile; free from the microbes that cause infection.
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What is sepsis?
A condition in which harmful bacteria affect the flesh, normally leading to infection and decaying flesh.
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What was a sign that a surgeon was experienced?
Wearing an old coat with blood and puss on it during surgery.
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What was the Black Period of surgery?
Where patients died from blood loss in surgery from the 1850s-1870s.
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What did Ignaz Semmelweiss do?
He made students wash their hands using a chlorinated solution which reduced the death rate of women in childbirth due to infection.
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Where did Ignaz Semmelweiss work and when?
Vienna General Hospital in Austria in 1846.
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What did others think of Semmelweiss's work?
Didn't agree because they had no knowledge of germs, he was sacked from the hospital and left Vienna.
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Who else used Semmelweiss's ideas?
James Simpson when he was Professor of Midwifery at Edinburgh University and in London. The methods again weren't widely accepted.
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What theory did Florence Nightingale believe caused infection?
Miasma theory
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What was the Miasma theory?
That disease was caused by poisonous vapours.
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How did Florence Nightingale do to increase the care for patients under her care?
She insisted that patients have their own beds and many other things.
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When did Louis Pasteur prove his Germ theory?
1861
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What was Pasteur's occupation?
French chemist.
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What was the Germ theory?
That decay and infection was caused by microbes in the air.
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Where and when did Joseph Lister work?
Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University in 1859 and then Surgeon at Glasgow Royal Infirmary in 1861.
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What did Lister use as an antisepic?
Carbolic acid
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When and who die Lister use carbolic acid on?
1865 on an 11 year old boy who had a compound fracture in his leg.
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When did Lister announce his wards had been free from sepsis for nine months due to carbolic acid.
1867
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In 1877 where did Lister become Professor of Surgery?
King's College Hospital in London.
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What did Lister use as sutures (stitches)?
Silk
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What were the problems with silk in this role?
Didn't soak carbolic acid (couldn't be steralised) and a thread had to be left out so that stiches could be pulled from the wound once it had healed.
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What other thing did Lister introduce which could be steralised and reduce the chance of infection?
Catgut
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What was given to Lister to recognise his work in surgery?
Title of baronet in 1883 and title of baron in 1897.
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What is the highest honour that can be given to a British surgeon?
Lister medal.
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Where was Lister's ideas accepted and not accepted?
Accepted in France and the USA and not accepted in Britain.
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What was the opposition to Lister's ideas?
Doctors didn't accept that microbes caused infection, the use of carbolic acid slowed down procedures and led to blood loss, doctors didn't always copy Lister's ideas properly, Lister kept changing his ideas, equipment was expensive and heavy etc.
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In 1878 German doctor Robert Koch identified the bacterium that causes what?
Blood poisoning.
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In 1878 what did Koch develop to steralise instruments?
Steam
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The 1900s saw many changes to surgery. Give an aseptic change.
Surgeons and assistants wore aseptic clothing free from blood, puss and microbes.
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How was blood replaced after blood loss?
Blood transfusions from animals and humans.
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What was the main animal that was used in blood transfussions?
Sheep
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What was cautery?
Blood vessels were sealed by a hot iron onto the wound or pouring hot oil over it.
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What is a ligature?
A thread tied around a blood vessel to stop bleeding.
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What is a transfusion?
The process of giving blood from a donor to a patient.
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From 1901-02 Karl Landsteiner suggested that there were different what?
Blood groups (A, B, O and AB).
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What did Richard Lewisohn find in 1915?
That adding sodium citrate stopped blood from clotting.
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What was the consequence of Lewisohn's discovery?
Donors didn't have to be present when transfusions were taking place.
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What did Richard Weil discover?
Blood could be stored in refrigerated conditions.
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In 1916 what did Francis Rous and James Turner discover?
Adding a citrate glucose solution allowed blood to be stored for longer.
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When and where was the first blood depot established?
1917 for the Battle of Cambrai using blood group O in the First World War.
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What meant that soldiers sufered deep wounds in the First World War?
The use of explosive weapons.
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During WW1 who asked to set up a plastic surgery unit in the British army?
New Zealand doctor Harold Gilles.
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What was pedicle tubes?
Skin from one area of the boy is connected to normally the face and blood flows and regrows the face.
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From 1914-1921 how many British soldiers lost limbs?
41,000
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Who discovered X-rays in 1895?
Wilhelm Roentgen
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Who developed a chloroform inhaler to regulate the doasge of chloroform for patients?
Dr John Snow
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Who inveneted the hypodermic needle in 1853 for the use in blood transfussions?
Alexander Wood
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When was novocaine first used as an anaesthetic?
1905
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What two things did people die from due to amputations?

Back

Blood loss or infection

Card 3

Front

Where did cutting for the stone surgery take place in the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an anaesthetic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a tourniquet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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