History of Psychology

What is animism?
Movements of own body controlled by mind or spirits
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What is an animus?
Life-giving spirit
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What are reflexes?
Automatic actions
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What makes humans different to animals according to Cartesian dualism?
The mind
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What is dualism?
Mind and matter
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What was the first era in psychology?
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According to Cartesian dualism, what is the mechanical body controlled by?
Non-mechanical mind
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What does John Locke (empiricism) compare the mind to?
Tabula rasa - clay that experience and knowledge can imprint on
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What is idealism, established by Bishop Berkeley?
Ideas come from the senses
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What is materialism, established by James Mill?
Reality known through physical world
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What is introspection?
Describing own experiences to determine nature of consciousness
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What did Ebbinghaus' research involve?
Measuring human memory
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What does structuralism study?
Mind structure based on ideas
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What is functionalism interested in?
Process of conscious activity
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What is psychometrics the study of?
Individual differences
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What is Thorndike's law of effect?
Behavioural consequences affect likelihood of repetition
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What will lead to errors in evaluation of human behaviour?
Focusing on stimuli
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What is the Transcendental method by Kant?
Examine facts then work back to reconstruct mental processes
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Card 2


What is an animus?


Life-giving spirit

Card 3


What are reflexes?


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Card 4


What makes humans different to animals according to Cartesian dualism?


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Card 5


What is dualism?


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