History - Germany (1918-1945)

Why was the German public so aggravated after the war?
Because they experienced many hardships such as food shortages and a flu epidemic that killed many
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When was the first notable revolution after WW1?
November 1918
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Where did the November 1918 revolution begin and why?
German sailors, because they refused to go on a suicide mission to fight the British navy and were killed for mutiny
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What was the result of the November 1918 revolution?
The Kaiser (William or Wilhelm) abdicated and went to live in exile in Holland.
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Where and when was the new democratic government formed in Germany?
Weimar, February 1919
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Why was the new government formed in Weimer?
Becasue Berlin had been experiencing a revolt led by a communist group, the Spartacists
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What were the two big weaknesses of the Weimar Republic?
Proportional representation
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Why was proportional representation a bad thing?
Because it resulted in many small parties so no party was strong enough to gain the majority
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Why was article 48 a bad thing?
Because it allowed the President to make laws without consulting the Reichstag (in an emergency)
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What were four advantages to the Republic?
Everyone's vote was represented in the Reichstag, little parties had seats in the Reichstag, all men and women over 20 had the right to vote, the Riechstag and President were both elected by the people
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What was the goal of the Spartacist uprising?
To overthrow the government and turn Germany into a communist nation which was,in their opinion, fairer
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Who led the Spartacist uprising?
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
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In which ways did the Spartacists want to replicate the Russian Revolution of 1917?
By overthrowing the central government, establishing soviets (worker/soldier councils) instead of a central government, and by using violent methods
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What did the Spartacists achieve during their revolt?
They gained control of the newspaper and communication buildings
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Why did they fail?
Many protesters left because of the lack of planning, and the communist-hating group, the Freikorps (employed by the Weimar) were sent to stop the uprising
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When was the Spartacist uprising?
January 1919
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What happened when the Freikorps confronted the Spartacists?
Over 100 workers were killed
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What was the aftermath of the Spartacist Uprising?
Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were captured and exceuted, and even more people (mainly communists and people of the working class) developed a hatred for the Social Democrats
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What effect did the Spartacist Uprising have on the Weimar Government?
When the Nazis threatened to take control, the Social Democrats and Communist parties could not settle their differences.
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When did the 1923 crisis begin?
When Germany missed a reparations payment
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Why was the fact that Germany had missed a reparations payment so bad?
Because the situation had spiralled out of control and left many Germans unhappy and in financial difficulty
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Who were the three main countries in the 'Allies'?
Britain, the US and the USSR
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Who were the two main countries in the 'Axis'?
Germany and Imperial Japan
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When was the Dawes Plan introduced?
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What did the Dawes Plan do?
It organised a schedule in which the Germans would pay reparations at set times, thus avoiding another economic crisis
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Who was Ernst Roehm and how did he die?
He was the leader of the SA and was killed during the night of the long knives by the ** (most likely because he was homosexual)
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Who was Franz von Papen and what did he do?
He was the leaderof the centre party (in Germany)and convinced von Hindenburg to letHitler become chancellor
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Who were the Freikorps and what did they do?
They were a group of former soldiers who fought against communist uprisings in Weimar Germany
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What is the modern equivalent of the League of Nations?
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When did Hyperinflation occur in Germany and why?
1924, because Germany was too reliant on the Young and Dawes plans
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Who was Josef Goebells?
Hitler's 'Minister of Propoganda' during the third Reich
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Who was Karl Liebknecht?
The joint leader (with Rosa Luzemburg) of the Spartacist party
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When and what was the Kapp Putsch?
In 1920, where ex-military generals marched on Berlin because they signed the treaty. It failed
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Why was the Weimar Republic so unpopular with the German public?
Because they signed the Treaty of Versailles and the German felt as if they had been stabbed in the back
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What did the Spartacists do in 1919?
They rebelled in Berlin, in an effort to have a communist government
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What are the five things involved in the chain of events that came after the Germans not paying reparations (last one = munich putsch)?
Invasion of the Ruhr, general strike, hyperinflation, communist rebellions and finally, the Munich Putsch
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When was the Spartacist Uprising?
In January, 1919
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What were the two biggest weaknesses of the Weimar Republic?
Proportional representation and Article 48
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What were three strengths of the Weimar Republic?
A bill of rights, that meant that everyone was equal under the law and had freedomof speech; everyone had the right to vote if they were over 20, giving men and women equal rights; and finally that presidents and the Reichstag were elected
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What did Stresseman do for 'the arts' in Weimar Germany?
Writers, poets and artists were florishing. A new architecture style was development. It was the golden age of cinema (1920s), the censorship on bands, singers and danecing was removed and people could express whatever view they had (even anti-gov.)
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What happened to politics under Stresseman?
It became more stable, the Nazi party achieved only 3% of the vote in 1928 and most supported the Weimar democracy
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What happened to Germany in 1926 (think foreign affairs)?
They were accepted into the League of Nations again
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What was the young plan and when was it signed?
A renegotiation of Germany's reparation payments, written in 1929 but formally adopted in 1930
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What are some problems that the Weimar republic faced from the left?
The spartacist uprising
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What were the effects of the Kapp Putsch?
Ebert called a general strikenin an effort to paralyse the movement of Kapp
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Why is the Kapp Putsch called the 'Kapp Putsch'?
Because Wolfgang Kapp led the rebellion
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Why did Kapp have a putsch?
Because he opposed everything that Ebert (the Weimar chancellor) did
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When was the Kapp Putsch?
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Why did the Kapp Putsch show Ebert as a weak leader?
Because he left his capital, showing his lack of power
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Why did more Germans support more extreme parties such as the Nazis?
Because of the crisis in 1923
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Why was the Ruhr occupated in January 1923?
Because the Weimar government said that they would not be able to pay some reparations. The French believed that this was a lie so they invaded the Ruhr to extract the reparations themselves
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How did the Weimar retaliate to the French invasion of the Ruhr?
They ordered the workers to go on strike
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What did the Frencg invasion of the Ruhr cause - why?
Hyperinflation, because the Ruhr was one of Germany's most industrial areas and the government started printing more money to pay the workers - this devalued the money
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Why did the elderly suffer due to hyperinflation?
Because they had fixed wages in the form of benefits
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Who were best off during hyperinflation?
People who got payed weekly, or got to negotiate their pay daily
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Why were peoplewith savings affected so negatively during hyperinflation?
Because their money lost it's value
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What caused the end of hyperinflation?
The Dawes Plan in 1924
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Why was the Dawes Plan so effective? What did it do?
It introduced a new currency (the Rentenmark)
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When did Hitler join the National Workers Party? What's the brief story?
12th September 1919, he was sent to spy on them but then decided that he agreed with them and joined
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When did the National Workers Party have a notable meeting - what did they do (two things)?
February 1920 - they changed their name to the National Socialist Party (Nazis for short)
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When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?
26th June 1919
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When did the French occupy the Ruhr?
Jan 1923
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What did Kapp do after his putsch?
He fled to Sweden
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Why wasn't Hitler the initial leader of the Nazis?
Because it already had a leader, Anton Drexler; Hitler challenged said leader for leadership then created the SA.
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What did Hitler use the SA for?
Mostly to intimidate people and disrupt communist meetings
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What's another name for the Storm Troopers?
The SA
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What two things did Hitler assume would happen during the Munich Putsch?
No one would fire at them and that the sent army and police would join their revolution against a dishonourable government
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Who were the two politicians involved with the Munich Putsch?
Kahr and Lussow
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What did Hitler's two accomplices do that angered him (relating to the Munich Putsch)?
They called it off, Hitler then stormed a meeting that they were attending with 600 stormtroopers
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What did Hitler do once at the beer hall when confronting Kahr and Lussow? What is ironic about this?
He held them at gunpoint, forcing them to agree to rebel once again. This is ironic because Kahr snitched on Hitler which is why there were police and army reinforcements
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When did Gusatv Stresseman become chancellor?
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When were the 'Golden Years'?
1924 - 29
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When was the Dawes Plan agreed?
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What did the Dawes Plan do?
Spread the load of Germany's reparations payments
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When was the Young Plan signed?
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What did the Young Plan do?
Extended Germany's reparations payment deadline
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When was the Locarno Pact signed?
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What did the Locarno Pact do?
All the countries that signed it vowed not to attack each other or change boarders
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When did Stresseman get Germany into the League of Nations?
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How did Stresseman help Germany achieve political stability?
By using his political skill to get chancellors to work together
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How did art during the 'Golden Period' demonstrate freedom of speech and thought?
Artists could demonstrate their political views and dislike for the things around them both explicitly and implicitly
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What is ironic about Hitler's father?
He was the supposed son of a Jewish man
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In Hitler's mind, what caused the end of WWI?
The Jews. He felt as if he had been stabbed in the back and was disappointed when the war ended
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What are four reasons for why the Munich Putsch can be considered a fail?
They didn't achieve their goal (to take over Germany), people died and got injured and Hitler was sent to prison
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Why was Hitler's prison sentence a good thing?
He had time to write 'Mein Kampf' and used the sentence as propaganda
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What are five ways in which Hitler reorganised the Nazi party from 1924 and 1929?
He made the ** (black), he made Hitler Youth, he made Josef Goebells the propaganda dude, he reduced the number of SA troops and he gained the support and trust of wealthy business men
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When was the ** established - why?
1926 - because Hitler wanted a more loyal party
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How did Hitler winover the working classes?
He told them what they wanted to hear
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Why was some of what was said during the public meetings of the Nazi Party a bit shifty?
Because they changed what they said to suit the audience
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How long did America give Germany to repay their loans following the Wall Street crash in 1929?
90 days
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What happened to German workers and businesses during the Wall Street Crash?
They lost their jobs (or gained worthless wage) and businesses closed (or got very low incomes)
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Following what did Nazi seats rise?
The Depression
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How was technology used as propaganda by the Nazi Party?
They flew Hitler around in planes, demonstrating wealth
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What was shifty about the Nazi's promises that they made to the German population as a whole?
They were vague so that everyone would agree and like them and didn't contain specific actions
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Why was Hindenburg slightly disliked among the German population?
He consistently used Article 48 and seemed old and past his prime
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How was the nature of the Weimar bad in relation to extremism?
They couldn't deal with them properly
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How did the Nazi party interact with other parties? What effect did this have on them?
They intimidated, murdered and beat them up. This reduced organisation withing opposing parties
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Why did the Nazi party seem strong when compared with socialist parties?
Because they were prepared to use guns and grenades (basically just force) with other parties
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What are 5 reason for why Rohm was murdered?
He wanted too much power, he was a supposed homosexual, he was too violent (which Hitler didn't need as he was chancellor), to demonstrate that you should respect Hitler and because he had socialist ideas
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What are two reasons for why people were supporting Hitler by 1932?
Because he promised a better Germany which seemde great as the public had just gone through a depression and because his propaganda was very good
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What did the Nazi Youth do during WWII?
They helped out on farms, in cities and even in the military services
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When was the 'Law of Encouragement of Marriage' introduced?
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What are three things that the Law of Encouragement of Marriage do?
Helped young couples get married, awarded mothers with many children and closed down birth control clinics
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How was the Hitler Youth Law of 1939 different to the one in 1936?
It was much less severe - but still made HJ membership compulsory
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Why did many parents support their children going to Hitler Youth?
Because most activities were free and their children did charity work
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Why didn't people speak up against the Hitler Youth?
Because they feared arrest
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What did the Nazis do to trade unions?
They banned them
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Prior to 1937, what was the Catholic approach to the Nazis when they were in power?
They supported them; the Pope and Hitler had signed a concord that read that Bishops had to take an oath to Hitler
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What happened after the concord (the Pope-Hitler one) was signed? How did the Pope react?
Hitler didn't keep his promise and shut down Church youth groups. The Pope protested in 1937 by reading a letter that commended the Nazis for their actions - this had little effect
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


When was the first notable revolution after WW1?


November 1918

Card 3


Where did the November 1918 revolution begin and why?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was the result of the November 1918 revolution?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where and when was the new democratic government formed in Germany?


Preview of the front of card 5
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