Germany 1918-1945

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  • Germany 1918-1945
    • Weimar Republic
      • Opposition from the left - Spartacist Revolt 1919
        • In November 1918, an independent socialist state was created in Bavaria under leadership from Kurt Eisner
        • Communists(Spartacists) wanted a revolution like in Russia
        • Communist activists led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg siezed power in Berlin and the Baltic Ports
        • Within weeks all revolts were crushed by army and Friekorps
      • Friedrich Ebert
        • Made chancellor after WW1 in November 1918
        • Drew up a new democratic constitution in summer of 1919 called Weimar Republic
        • New government used proportional representation e.g. 18% votes = 18% seats in Reichstag
        • First president of the new constitution
      • Opposition from the right - The Kapp Putsch 1920
        • German nationalists saw democracy as weak, Weimar Republic was a symbol of Germany's defeat in the war
          • Friekorps
            • A group of ex-soldiers
            • Hated Communists and fought them in the streets
        • Hated Treaty of Versailles
        • Wolfgang Kapp was an extreme nationalist who led The Kapp Putsch
        • The workers organised strikes, preventing the production of gas, water and oil
        • After 4 days, Kapp and supporters gave up and fled
      • Invasion of the Ruhr 1922
        • According to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany had to pay all reparation costs
        • After Germany failed to meet their payment in 1922, the French invaded the Ruhr
        • German workers used passive resistance to try and get rid of the French troops
        • Germany's industry came to a halt and hyperinflation began
      • Hyperinflation 1922-1923
        • After the invasion of the Ruhr , Germany's economy ground to a halt
        • November 1923 -> $1 = 4,200,000,000 marks
        • Workers had to be paid twice a day in many cases because the cost of food rose every hour
        • A new currency was bought in buy Gustav Stresemann called the Rentenmark
        • People on fixed incomes suffered very badly
    • Stresemann Period
      • Economic Recovery
        • Stresemann introduced the Rentenmark in 1923
        • Hyperinflation stopped
        • Ruhr industry restarted
        • Under the Dawes Plan, Germany received loans from US to help pay reparations
        • German industry benefited from loans and unemployment fell sharply
      • Culture
        • German cinema developed in the 1920s, introducing actors such as Marlene Dietrich
        • Artists led new movement in the visual arts
        • Theatre flourished, introducing world famous writers
        • New ideas for furniture and buildings were developed
      • The  Locarno Treaties 1925
        • Germany signed the Locarno Treaties in and the Treaty of Versailles
        • Germany joined the League of Nations in 1926
      • The effect of the Wall Street Crash 1929
        • The Wall Street crash caused disaster for Germany
        • The majority of US banks called for their loans to be repaid immidiately
        • German businesses closed and millions found themselves unemployed
      • Extremist Groups
        • In 1924 the Nazis won 14 seats and in 1928 only 12 however Hitler was building a large support
        • The Communists were also building support and had 54 seats in the 1928 election
        • Even though Germany was recovering from WW1, extreme political groups continued growing
    • The Nazis
      • Nazi Germany
        • When Hitler came to power, Germany changed again
        • The new cultures that had developed in Weimar Germany were lost again
        • Hitler ignored the Treaty of Versailles and rebuilt the army and introduced conscription
        • Children were encouraged to inform on people and were also expected to go to Hitler Youth
        • The Gestapo, secret police, used violence to intimidate people and were responsible for getting rid of opponents
        • Joseph Goebbles spread Nazi ideas through propaganda
      • The Final Solution
        • During the final years of the war, Hitler knew that his side was losing
        • The Nazis built large camps called concentration camps to imprison their opponents
        • New camps were specially built called death camps where the mass killing of Jews occured
      • The Rise of the Nazis
        • Fear of communism amongst more wealthy people led to the Nazis gaining more votes
        • Hitler's SA attacked opposition
        • Hitler blamed the government for the Treaty of Versailles. He called them the 'November criminals'
        • Hitler was made chancellor in 1933
        • Hitler promised the people work and bread which is exactly what they needed
        • The Reichstag fire started by a communist was an excuse for Hitler to create the enabling act and to attack communists
        • The unemployed blamed the democracy and began looking towards extremist parties
        • Hitler joined with the Nationalist Party in 1933 to have majority in the Reichstag
      • The Munich Putsch
        • Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party attempted to seize control of the Bavarian Government in 1923
        • The Nazis first marched on Munich and once taken, they planned to march to Berlin
        • Bavarian police shot at the Nazis, killing 16.
        • Hitler and Ludendorff were sentenced for high treason but received minor sentences in which time Hitler wrote his book Mine Kampf
    • The Treaty of Versailles
      • Army
        • The German army was limited to 100,000 men
        • Conscription was no longer allowed
        • The German Army was not allowed an air force
        • The German Navy was only allowed 6 warships
        • The German Army were not allowed armoured vehicles or submarines
      • Reparations
        • The Allies forced Germany to pay all reparations
        • The exact payment was agreed in 1921 and set at £6.6billion
      • Other
        • Germany had to accept full responsibility and guilt for the war
        • Germany had to accept that they started the war
        • The League of Nations was set up however Germany were not allowed to join
      • Territory
        • Germany lost all of its foreign colonies
        • Alsace Lorraine was given to france
        • West Prussia and Posen were given to Poland as well as Upper Silesia
        • East Prussia was given to Lithuania
        • The city of Danzig was run by the League of Nations
        • North Schleswig was given to Denmark
        • The Rhineland was demilitarised
        • Saarland was run by the League of Nations

Comments

Ajm1500

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fantastic diagram, really helped me plan my history revision!

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