Germany timeline 1918-1945

A timeline with dates and details following the whole period which I consider to be important to the course but I may have missed some out.

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Weimar Germany 1918-1933 - Nazi developments
1918- WW1 ends and Kaiser abdicates
- National income a third of what it had been in 1913 and 1.6 million German
men had died
1919- Weimar Republic introduced with Ebert as leader
-Democratic, proportional representation, president and chancellor, Article
1919- Treaty of Versailles
-Reparations were £6,600 million, lost industrial land (Saarland), not allowed
in league of nations so no allies, guilt and humiliation (Nationalists felt
betrayed), Armed forces restricted( no air force and the Rhineland was
1919- Spartacist uprising (communists- big gap in rich and poor as blockade
still in place)
- Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
-Aimed to establish soviets around the country, gained some control in Berlin
Ebert called upon Freikorps to prevent revolution
1920- Nazis set up 25 point programme
1920- Kapp Putsch (Nationalists- wanted Germany to be powerful again)
- Dr Wolfgang Kapp, 500 Freikorps rebelled and nearly took Berlin, Army
refused to fire on their fellow comrades, Ebert had to ask people to strike,
many left unpunished
1921- Hitler leader of Nazi party
1923- Year of crisis
-French invasion of Ruhr as Germany had failed to pay reparations to France
and Belgium (who had war debt to America), January troops marched into

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Ruhr and took what they were owed, Ebert ordered workers to strike, French
reacted angrily and killed over 100 workers
-Hyperinflation as Germany had no income as couldn't trade without its
industrial land, government printed off more money, value of money went
down but prices of goods went up, money worthless, pensions destroyed,
poverty and starvation
-Munich Putsch (why? Mussolini, SA had grown, government weak), In 1923
Nazis had grown from 50 members to 55,000, Hitler planned with two
nationalist politicians but they pulled out…read more

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Economic Depression
1929- Wall street crash, Germany in depression because of reliance on
American loans, Banks and businesses shut down
1930- The young plan reduced reparations
1932- Industrial levels were 58% of its 1928 levels
1933- 6 million unemployed
social/political impact- communism became a threat, homelessness and
crime soared, as too many parties in Reichstag and not one majority no
reforms could be introduced as laws were hard to pass
January 1933- Hitler becomes chancellor, has 288 seats so a majority, 44% of
-Initially…read more

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Is allowed to seize emergency powers to arrest communists, has control
over police -eliminates one group of opponents to the Nazis
March 1933- Enabling act
-Hitler uses SS and SA to intimidate the Reichstag in order to pass the
enabling act, Hitler could now pass laws without support of the Reichstag,
effectively a dictator
1933- Hitler signed concordat with catholic church, set up German Faith
June 1934- night of the long knives, why?
-German army saw the SA as rival; would only support Hitler…read more

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Jewish homes and shops were attacked , synagogues burnt, over 100
Jews killed
1939- Invasion of Poland, Nazis beat up Polish Jews and cut their beards off
inhumanely, area of 1.…read more


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