Health and Social Care: Human Lifespan Development

Theories of Development

  • Created by: Emma_123
  • Created on: 09-01-18 10:24
Who came up with the Maturation Theory?
Gessell
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What is the Maturation Theory?
Children follow a sequence in development, which is determined from birth
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What are the positives of the Maturation Theory?
Gessell determines typical norms of development still used today
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What are the negatives of the Maturation Theory?
Does not consider the influence of individual or cultural differences in children
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Who came up with the the Social Learning Theory?
Bandura
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What is the Social Learning Theory?
Learning happens through observing, imitating and modelling behaviour of others
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What are the four principles of social learning?
Attention, retention, reproduction and motivation
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Explain 3 types of reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement: behaviour is repeated due to a reward/ good feeling. Negative Reinforcement: behaviour is not repeated due to punishment. Vicarious Reinforcement: children do/don't repeat behaviour due to seeing rewards/punishment on others
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Explain Banduras Bobo Doll experiment
Different videos of people hitting bobo dolls were shown to various groups of children. In the videos authority figures treated the person differently. When left in a room on their own the children acted differently to the bobo doll depending punishm
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Who came up with the Theory of Attachment?
Bowlby
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What is the Theory of Attachment?
Infants, in their early months, form one primary attachment. This attachment is essential and if disrupted can have negative impacts on development
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Who identified the different stages of attachment?
Schaffer and Emerson
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Birth - 3 months
Responds to any caregiver
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4 - 7 months
Shows preference for primary caregiver but accepts care from others
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7 - 9 months
Prefers primary care giver and seeks comfort from them - unhappy when separated
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10 months +
Begins to develop attachments with others who respond to them. By 18 months most infants have formed multiple attachments
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Which theorist looked into cognitive development?
Piaget
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What are the different stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor = 0-2 years Pre-operational = 2-7 years Concrete operations = 7-11 years Formal Operations = 11+ years
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Sensorimotor
Infants learn about their environment and develop early schemas by using their senses to explore the world
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Pre-operational
Children begin to control their environment by using symbolic behaviour (drawing and play). They can't think logically.
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Concrete Operations
Children can use practical resources to help them understand the world. They use logic to understand things they see.
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Formal Operations
Young people have the capacity for abstract thought, rational thought and problem solving
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What other theory did Piaget develop?
The Schematic Development Theory
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What is the schematic development theory?
Assimilation (understanding a concept) ----> Equilibrium (experience fits with their schema) ----> Disequilibrium (new experiences disturbs schema) ----> Accommodation (schema changes to fit new experience) ---->
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What two tests to Piaget conduct?
Conservation and Egocentrism
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Explain the conservation tests
These were tests to show/ demonstrate when children begin to reason and think logically. Children can not conserve under age of 7 as they cannot think about more than one aspect at a time. Example = water experiment
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Egocentrism
Children only see things from their own point of view before 7 years old. Example = The swiss mountain test
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What are the criticisms of these tests?
It underestimates the rate of children's development. children could develop advanced concepts quicker. Children could have experiences which make them move through stages quicker.
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What does LAD stand for?
Language Acquisition Device
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Who developed the LAD theory?
Chomsky
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What is the LAD
A hypothetical part of the human mind which allows infants to acquire and produce language. he says we are born with innate language, it just needs to be developed.
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What are the criticisms of LAD
Has a lack of scientific evidence of the innate understanding. He puts emphasis on grammar in sentence development rather than meaning
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What are the three stages of play and the years they come under?
Solo play = 0-2 Parallel play = 2-3 Co-operative play = 3+
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What is solo play?
The infant is engrossed with their own play. Play alone with their own toys, can be aware of children around them but do not attempt to play with them
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What is parallel play?
Children play next to each other but focus on their own play. May copy the other children
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What is co-operative play?
Children may begin sharing, talking and playing together. They share ideas and resources in same activity.
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What is nature?
When behaviour and development are influenced by innate or inherited factors.
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What is nurture?
Behaviour and development can be influenced by nurturing
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the Maturation Theory?

Back

Children follow a sequence in development, which is determined from birth

Card 3

Front

What are the positives of the Maturation Theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the negatives of the Maturation Theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who came up with the the Social Learning Theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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