- Created by: Mr_Mackintoast
- Created on: 10-12-17 16:19
- Ablation- A glacier's negative mass balance.
- Ablation Till- Material deposited by melting ice from glaciers.
- Abrasion (Corrosion)- Process of scraping or wearing something away.
- Accumulation- A glacier's positive mass balance.
- Active Layer- The seasonally thawed surface layer above permafrost.
- Advance (Glacial)- The result of the glacier's posiive mass balance.
- Alases- Shallow depressions which occur primarily in Yauktia.
- Anthropocene- Relating to the current geological age.
- Aeolian Processes- Processes which can shape glaciated landscapes.
- Angular- Having angles or sharp corners.
- Arete- A sharp mountain ridge.
- Artesian Pressure- A confined aquifer containing groundwater positive pressure
- Aspect- Direction which a slope/surface faces
- Avalanche- A mass of snow/ice and rocks falling rapidly down a mountain side
- Basal Sliding- The act of a glacier sliding over the bed due to meltwater.
- "Basket of Eggs" Topography- Arrangement of natural and physical features
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- Bergschrund- A crevasse at the junction of a glacier.
- Blockfield- A surface covered by large rocks
- Braided Streams- A stream consisting of multiple small shallow channels
- Carbonation- Rainwater combines with co2 to make weak carbonic acid
- Crevasse- A deep open crack, especially one in a glacier.
- Cold-based Glacier- Temperatures at surface too cold for water to exist any point of year
- Compressing Flow- When the velocity of ice movement decreases
- Corrie (Cirque/Cwm)- Half open steep sided hollow at head of valley
- Cryoturbation- Mixing of materials from various horizons of the soil
- Debris Flow- Moving mass that travels down a slope via gravity.
- Deposition- Where material is picked up in one place and deposited in another
- Diagenesis- Process where snow becomes ice due to compression
- Drift- All material deposited during glaciation
- Drumlins- Low oval mound/small hill made of compacted boulder clay
- Ellipsoidal Basin- Basin having the form of an ellipsoid
- Englacial (debris)- Loose natural matieral
- Equilibrium Line- Where the inputs equal the outputs
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- Erosion- Process of being eroded by wind, water or other nature
- Erratic- Rock/Boulder differing from the surrounding rock
- Escarpment- Long, Steep Slope especially at edge of plateau
- Esker- A long narrow ridge marking glacier tunnel location
- Extending Flow- Movement of ice
- Freeze Thaw- Where water enters racks and expands
- Frost Heave- Upwards swelling of soil during freezing
- Frost Shattering- Water trapped in rock pores freezes and expands
- Gelifluction- Seasonal freeze thaw action upon water logging top soils
- Geomorphic Processes- Nature and origin of landforms
- Glacial- Permanently covered by ice
- Glacial Landscape- Creates by areas of glaciers
- Glacier- Large slow moving mass of ice
- Glacier Mass Balance- Total accumulation minus total ablation
- Glacio-Fluvial- Material deposited by meltwater (also outwash)
- Granular Disintegration- Where grains of rock loosen and fall out
- Hydration- Water molecules added to rock minerals to form new materials
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- Hydrolysis- Chemical reaction between water and rock minerals
- Hydrostatic Pressure- Pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium
- Ice Sheet- Largest accumulation of ice
- Ice Shelf- Thick floating platform of ice
- Ice Wedge Cast- An ice wedge filled with sediment and dirt
- Ice Contact Drift- (See Kame)
- Internal Deformation- Type of glacial movement. Ice inside deforms.
- Inter-glacial- An interval of time
- Inter-granular flow- Individual ice crystals reorientate and move in relation to one another
- Isostatic Changes- Caused by build up of ice on land
- Jokulhaulps- A type of glacial outburst flood
- Kame- A mound-like hill of ice-contact stratified drift
- Laminar Flow- Movement of individual layers with glacier
- Lateral Moraine- Parallel ridges of debries deposited along sides of glacier
- Lithology- Chemical and physical composition of rocks
- Lodgement Till- Material deposited by advancing ice
- Mass Movement- Occurs when forces acting on slope material exceeds forces keeping it on slope.
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- Microclimate- Climate of a very small or restricted area
- Nivation- Erosion of ground beneath and sides of snow bank
- Nivation Hollow- A small shallow depression aka Nivation Cirque
- Ognip- Opposite of a pingo
- Open System- Material system where mass/energy can go to/from environment
- Output- Amount of something produced by person, machine or industry
- Outwash- Material deposited by meltwater (Also glacio-fluvial)
- Outwash Plain- A plain formed of glacial sediments deposited by meltwater outwash
- Oxidation- Oxygen reacts with minerals in rocks
- Patterned Ground- Ground showing pattern caused by repeated freeze-thawing
- Periglacial (environments)- Area adjacent to a glacier
- Permafrost- Permanently frozen ground
- Pingo- Dome-shaped mound consisting of layers of soil
- Plucking- A process of glacial erosion
- Pressure Melting Point- Temp at which ice melts at given pressure
- Pressure Release- Weight of overlaying ice lost due to melting
- Pro-glacial (areas)- In front a proglacial lake
- Proglacial Lakes- Lake formed by damming action of moraine or ice dam
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- Pyramidal Peak- An angular sharply pinted mountain peak
- Recessional Moraines- A series of transverse ridges running across valley behind terminal moraine
- Regolith- Layer of unconsolidated (weakened) solid material covering bedrock
- Relief- Steepness of slopes
- Retreat (glacial)- The result of the glacier's negative mass balance
- Ribbon Lake- A long, narrow finger shaped lake
- Rigid Zone- Boundary between zone of accumulation and wastage
- Roche Mountonnees- Small bare outcrop of rock shaped by glacial erosion
- Rockfall- Rock falls to the floor forming a scree slope
- Rock Flour- Consists of fine grained silt sized particles of rock
- Rock Glacier- A distinctive geomorphological landform
- Rock (corrie) Lip- Left from moraine when erosion rate decreases
- Seracs- A pinncale/ridge on glacier surface
- Scree (slope)- (A slope of) loose rock debris at bottom of steep incline
- Sliding- Move smoothly along a surface
- Slumping- A part of weathering
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- Snout- Near the end of a glacier
- Solifluction- Gradual movement of wet soil (or other) down a slope
- Solution- Mineral dissolves in water
- Sorted/Unsorted (Deposits)- Drumlins, Moraines and Erratics
- Stadial- Moraine isotope stage
- Stone Polygon/Graland/Stripe- Where stone stripes are elongated
- (Un)Stratified (deposits)- Geological processes where soil and rocks added to landform
- Striations- Series of ridges, furrows or linear marks
- Structure (geological)- Result of powerful tectonic forces occuring in earth
- Sub-angular- Free from sharp angles but not smoothly rounded
- Subglacial (debris)- Formed/occuring at bottom of glacier
- Sublimation- When anything becomes gas without being a liquid first
- Subsidence- Gradual caving in/sinking of an area of land
- Supraglacial (debris)- Occuring at surface of glacier
- Talik- Layer of year round unfrozen ground
- Talus- Pile of rock that accumulates at base of cliff, chute or slope
- Tarn- A mountain lake or pool formed in a cirque
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- Thawing- Become liquid or soft as a result of warming
- Terminal Moraine- Type of moraine that forms at snout
- Thermokarst- Land surface characterised by irregular surfaces
- Till- Material deposited directly by the ice
- Till Sheet- When a surface of ice becomes detached from glacier
- Trough (Glacial)- Elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure
- Valley Glacier- Streams of flowing ice confined within valleys
- Warm-based Glacier- Water at surface in summer
- Weathering- Erosion of the rock caused by various sources
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Key to Colours
Vital- Can't survive without these
Useful- Difficult to write an excellent answer without these
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