Germany under the Weimar Republic 1919-29

1) Why was Germany in a state of chaos at the end of the First World War? Name two things.
Because there were strikes and revolts by workers and soldiers in many towns. Morale was also rapidly low because of food shortages, a flu epidemic and a growing realisation that the War was being lost
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2) What did the Kaiser do as a result and why?
He abdicated on 9 Novemeber 1918 and fled to Holland, because he feared that he might be overthrown in a violent revolution
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3) What was the new governments name and who was its first leader?
Weimar Republic, Freidrich Ebert who was the leader of the Socail Democratic Party
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4) What is meant by 'a new constitution was planned'
A new way in which how the country was to be governed was set up.
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5)What was Article 48?
Article 48 allowed the president to pass his own laws without prior consent of the Reichstag in times of crisis
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6)Name 3 strengths of the Weimar constitution
The president was to be elected every 7 years, all Germans over 20 could vote, Basic rights like freedom of speech were protected
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7)Name three weaknesses of the Weimar constitution
Article 48, proportional representation meant that minor parties won seats in the Reichstag who generally weren't concerned about national interests and coalitions were inevitable
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8)What was the new constitution negatively associated with?
Defeat in the first world war and the hated treaty of versailles
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9)What was one of Eberts governments first acts and when?
In Novemeber 1918 Ebert's governements signed the Armistice
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10)What did the Armistice do and why did Ebert sign it?
It brought an end to the fighting in the first world war. Ebert had no choice to sign it as Germany was clearly beaten.
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11)Negative effects of signing the Armisitice for Ebert?
His opponents later created a myth that victory had still been possible, leading the Weimar politicians to become known as 'the November criminals' who had 'stabbed Germany in the back'
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12)When was the Treaty of Versailles signed and what did Germans think about this?
June 1919, most Germans were bitterly angry
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13)What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
The army was limited to 100,000men and conscription was banned, Germany had to pay reparations for 6.6billion, and Germany was forced to surrender its colonies to Britain and France as mandates e.g German West Africa was surrendered to Britain
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14)What 4 important parties opposed Weimar and when?
Spartacists 1919, Dr Kapp and Freikorps 1920 , Nazis 1923
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15)Why did the Spartacists oppose Weimar?
They thought change had not gone far enough since elections. They wanted a full-scale revolution like Russia. They wanted Germany to be run by workers' councils or soviets.
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16)How did Sparcacists oppose Weimar?
There was a Spartacist uprising in January 1919 before the new assembly met at Weimar which was crushed by Ebert's regular army and 4,000 Freikorps.
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17)What were the names of the leaders of the Spartacists and what happened to them?
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht were murdered during Spartacist uprising
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18)Why did Dr Kapp and the Freikorps oppose Weimar?
There was too much change, they wanted 'old Germany' back, they preferred the idea of a powerful army and strong leader like the Kaiser
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19)How did Dr Kapp and the Freikorps oppose Weimar?
The Kapp Putsch March 1920. Marched into Berlin with 5,000 Freikorps to control city. Forced government to flee.
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20)What happened to Kapp Putsch?
It failed.Dr Kapp and the Freikorps were forced to give up when Berlin workers organised a general strike grounding the city to a halt.
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21)Why did the Nazis oppose Weimar?
The Nazis loathed the Treaty of Versailles and were waiting for an opportunity to pounce, so when Stressemann called off the passive resistance to the Ruhr it was seen as giving in, The Nazis saw this as a moment of weakness and jumped.
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22)How did the Nazis oppose Weimar?
The Munich Putsch November 1923. They attempted to seize control of Munich by marching in.
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23)What happened to the Munich Putsch?
It failed. The Nazis did not have enough support as they anticipated so the Bavarian police stopped them easily
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24)In what year did the German government refuse to pay reparations?
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25)Was this refusal genuine?
Yes it was genuine because of debts left over from the first world war and the fact that the demand was impossibly high.
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26)What was the Ruhr?
Germany's industrial heartland
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27)How did France and Belgium respond to this refusal to pay?
They occupied the Ruhr, taking over coal and iron ore industries
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28)How did Germany retaliate?
Passive resistance, refusing to cooperate with occupying forces
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29)How did the French react to passive resistance?
By expelling 150,000 from the region and shooting 132 workers
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30)What was the disadvantage of passive resistance?
Industrial production fell rapidly leaving the government vey short of money.
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31)How did the government attempt to solve this problem and what were its affects?
by printing more and more money leading to hyperinflation. Paper money became worthless.
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32)Effects of hyperinflation on Germans?
Bad= Many Germans lost their life saving which was bad Good= Some people were able to pay of massive loans or debts
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33)What was the crisis of 1923?
The Weimar crisis or Hyperinflation crisis
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34)What years were seen as the 'Golden Years'?
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35)How did the Golden Years start?
Gustav Stressemann was elected chancellor on November 1923
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36)2 synonyms for golden years?
Recovery period, economic prosperity
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37)4 contributers to golden years and their affects?
Stressemann called off passive resistance leading to French withdrawal and resumption of normal production; Rentenmark introduced as new currency; Dawes plan introduced; Young Plan reduced reparations and Locarno Treaty improved relationships
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38)2 positive effects of the Dawes plan?
Allies forced to evacuate Ruhr, and loans from USA were negotiated
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39)Negative effect of calling off passive resistance on public?
they saw it as an act of cowardice
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40)terms of Locarno Treaty?
Weimar promised to accept its western borders with France and Belgium and promised to only use peaceful means if seeking to challenge its eastern border.
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41)In what year did German join the League of Nations?
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42)What did this help
It improved Germany's relationship with other countries such as France and Belgium
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43)What did all of these things lead to? Name 3 things.
a 'boom' period of low unemployment, a stable currency and greater political stability
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44)How did the 'boom' period affect artists, film-makers and writers?
They had more freedom and were able to experiment with new, previously forbidden ideas i.e. anti-war sentiments. Berlin became known for its jazz bands and nightlife.
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45)Negative effect of boom period on public?
Crime and prostitution also flourished
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46)6 remaining problems?
regular changes in government, supporters of extremists, exerts death and hindeburgs election, berlins nightclubs, too dependant on US, farmers in debt 1927
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47)Why was regular changes in government a problem?
Many people became cynical
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48)Why were the extremist supporters a threat?
Because around 30% of voters supported them which was a dangerous number
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49)Why was Hindenburg elected and why was this a problem for Weimar?
Ebert died in 1925 so Hindeburg was elected as he was a highly respected first world war hero, this was bad for Weimar as he was not a great supporter of democracy
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50)Who criticised berlins nightclubs and why?
Churches and ordinary germans because they saw it as evidence of a decline in morals
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51)Why did many farmers go into debt in 1927?
Because of falling food prices
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52)How did this period of prosperity come to an abrupt end?
Wall street set off a chain of events, led to 6million unemployed, hitlers rise to power by january 1933 and germanys approaching end of democracy.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


2) What did the Kaiser do as a result and why?


He abdicated on 9 Novemeber 1918 and fled to Holland, because he feared that he might be overthrown in a violent revolution

Card 3


3) What was the new governments name and who was its first leader?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


4) What is meant by 'a new constitution was planned'


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


5)What was Article 48?


Preview of the front of card 5
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