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Effect of WW1 on Germany
Hindenburg…read more

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Treaty of Versailles: Main terms
· Guilt ­ clause 231: Germany accepted blame `for causing all the loss and
damage' of the war = war guilt clause
· Army ­ army: 100,000/ no conscription/ no armoured vehicles (tanks,
submarines, aircraft/ 6 battleships/ Rhineland de-militarised
· Reparations ­ £6,600 million (not set until 1921) ­ in instalments, until 1984.
(terms changed in Young Plan 1929)
· Germany lost land ­ Alsace-Lorraine to France/ Saar (valuable coal mining
area) to France (15 years)/ West Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland - polish
corridor/ Danzig a `free city' controlled LoN (reality given to Poland as sea
port)/
· Colonies ­ German colonies became `mandates' of the League of Nations
(effectively controlled by Fr + B).
· Union between Germany and Austria's 6.5 million Germans = forbidden.…read more

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Why was the ToV so unpopular in Germany?
· Had opened peace negotiations on basis of Wilson's Fourteen Points (explicitly
denied vengeful peace) ­> thought would be treated more leniently
· German people not told much about war - did not know scale of defeat
· Reparations punished people for years, not Kaiser who had fled to Holand
· Newly elected democratic govt who were not same one who took Germany to war -
should have helped newly elected govt, instead knocked it back
· War guilt clause = unfair - Ger were scapegoats
· Germany had suffered worse than any other major country (except possibly Russia)
- 2m German soldiers killed and economy ruined by British blockade
· Many soldiers didn't believe had actually been defeated ­> `stab in the back'
theory
· German people told they were fighting defensive war - couldn't understand how
they had lost if Germany not been invaded
· BUT Ger had rejected 14 points when had a chance of winning war
· Ger's treatment of Russia in Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 even harsher…read more

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Was Weimar Republic doomed
from the start?
By autumn of 1918 German was on its knees:
· The people were starving after 4yrs of war and allied blockade
· Ludendorff offensive (spring 1918) failed and army now facing defeat
· Aug and Sept German army collapsed
· There were mutinies of sailors in the fleet at Kiel ­> spread to army and to workers
in cities
· But some people believed the war could be continued
· Abdication of the Kaiser leaving country in hands of Soc Dems. Ebert (soc dem
leader) called cease-fire Nov 11th 1918 when he heard from generals how bad the
situation was
· There was much opposition to the ToV and bitterness about the war…read more

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The Weimar Constitution
Weimar = town where set up Constitution = ruled that govern government Weimar Government = lasted 1919-33
How it worked:
appoints The President
Elected every 7yrs
The Chancellor
Appointed from Reichstag by the President. Article 48
Had to be supported by majority of the Said in an emergency he
Reichstag. could make laws w/o
going first to Reichstag
elect
The Reichstag
Proportional representation: parties got the same
Proportion of seats as their proportion of votes elect The German People
All over 20 can vote. All
makes laws have equal rights
The states kept their own govts, but w/ reduced powers. National laws overrule state laws…read more

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Comments

Miss E

This contains everything you need to know about the structure and the events of  the Weimar Republic period. You need to be able to explain why it failed (long term weaknesses) and why the people voted for Hitler.

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