Weimar Germany (1919-29)

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  • Weimar Germany
    • Early struggles
      • Treaty of Versailles
        • 1918
          • Reparations
            • £6.6 billion
              • Difficult for Germany to pay
          • Arnaments
            • 100,000 men
              • Germany unable to defend itself
                • no tanks and submarines
                • 6 battleships
            • no tanks and submarines
            • 6 battleships
            • a demilitarized Rhineland
          • War Guilt
            • Germany had to take full blame
              • Sense of embarrassment by the German people
      • Uprisings
        • Spartacist uprising
          • 1919
            • Spartacists staged attempted revolution in Berlin
              • Against Ebert's government
                • Uprising crushed by right-wing Freikorps
        • Kapp Putsch
          • 1920
            • 5000 Freikorps led by Kapp led a putsch
              • Took control of Berlin
                • Government fled
                  • Called on workers to strike in all essential services
                    • Berlin paralysed
                      • Putsch failed and Kapp fled abroad to Sweden
      • Political instablility
        • Article 48
          • If there is an emergency, the president may rule alone or with the army
            • Could suspend democracy too
        • President had power to appoint or dismiss the chancellor
        • Proportional representation
          • In election, number of seats is directly proportional to number of votes
            • Means likelihood of any party gaining majority is low
      • Hyperinflation
        • First reparations payment made in 1921
          • Nothing paid in 1922
            • Government announced that they could not pay in 1923
              • In Jan 1923, French and Belgian troops invaded Ruhr
                • German government told workers to strike
                  • Had to give workers pay
                    • Shortage in materials occurred
                      • Prices increased as a result
                        • Government then had to print more notes
                          • Prices spiralled out of control
                            • Government prints more notes
                              • Cycle repeats
                                • Effects
                                  • People on fixed incomes suffered
                                  • Savings became worthless
                                  • Employers had to pay wages more often
                                  • Those who had debts benefitted
    • Gustav Stresemann helping Germany recover
      • Economical recovery
        • New currency
          • September 1923
            • Rentenmark introduced
        • The Dawes Plan
          • 1924
            • 800 million marks given to Germany
              • More factories
                • More jobs
                • More wealth
        • The Young Plan
          • 1929
            • Time period for reparations payments extended until 1988
            • Reparations fee reduced to £2.2 billion
      • Social recovery
        • Locarno Treaties
          • 1925
            • Germany accepted Rhineland was to remain demilitarised
            • France to never invade Ruhr again
        • Germany joined League of Nations
          • 1926
            • Given seat in Council as permanent member
        • Kellogg-Briand Pact
          • 60 countries promised to never go to war again
    • Hitler
      • Munich Putsch
        • 1923
          • Hitler and the SA invaded Beer Hall
            • Forced Von Kahr to support him
              • Marched into Munich
                • Confronted by police
                  • Police opened fire
                    • 16 Nazis killed
                      • Hitler put on trial
                        • Spoke forcefully in courtroom
                          • Sentenced to 5 years
                            • Only served nine months
      • Restructure of the Nazi Party
        • Hitler Youth set up
        • Local branches set up across the country
        • SA enlarged
        • SS set up
        • Focused more on getting peasants' support

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