Germany 1918-1945

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How was the President chosen? How did this compare to the method by which the Kaiser was chosen?
The president was chosen by allowing everyone over the age of 20 to vote for members of the Reichstag. However, the Kaiser was chosen as he was a member of the Royal Family.
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Explain how ordinary Germans did well out of the new constitutions
The ordinary German people got lots of freedom from the new constitution. This freedom included: Freedom of speech, assembly, belief and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
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How did proportional representation work?
Proportional representation meant that if smaller political parties got a particular percentage of votes, they will get that percentage of seats in parliament.
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Why was proportional representation welcome for smaller parties?
It was welcome for smaller political parties because they'd be able to have their say in creating the new constitution.
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How and why might Article 48 have been misused?
The president could make laws without the Reichstag so he could be bias.
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The president had the power to appoint or dismiss the Chancellor. How and why might this authority have been abused?
President could be bias which meant the Chancellor chosen may not be the right choice for what Germany needed.
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Explain who the Spartacists were.
A German Communist Political Party who wanted to overthrow the democratic governmn
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Who were the Sparticists' leaders? What happened when the uprising was shut down?
Karl Liebnecht and Rosa Luxemburg. They were arrested, beaten with rifle butts, shot and their bodies were dumped in a canal.
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How did the Spartacists rebel? How did the government react?
They took to street fighting and a rebellion. The government sent in the Freikorps to attack and put down the rebellion. The government also fled from Berlin to Wiemar to sign the constitution.
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Explain who was involved in the Kapp Putsch.
The Freikorps that wanted to overthrow the government so they could rule the communists.
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Who was their leader?
Dr Wolfgang Kapp.
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What was the Kapp Putsch? How did the government react?
Freikorps used military force to fight in the streets. The government couldn't use the Army as they had friends in the Freikorps so Ebert persuaded the public to go on a General Strike to cut off the supplies.
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What did the Dawes Plan achieve?
The USA lent Germany £40 million which was used to rebuild the economy. The plan also spread the load of crippling reparations.
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What did the Young Plan achieve?
Extended the deadline for the payment of reparations for a further 59 years.
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What did the Locarno Pact include?
Germany and France agreed never to change the borders between the two countries.
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What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
A pact signed by over 60 countries to promise they'd never go to war with each-other again.
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In what year was Germany allowed to join the League of Nations?
1926.
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Why did the Germans hate the Treaty of Versailles?
They felt back-stabbed because they had not been involved in any decisions.
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What was the War Guilt Clause?
It meant that Germany had to take all the blame for the war and they also had to take all the punishments.
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How much did Germany have to pay in reparation fees?
£6.6 billion.
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What were some of the military punishments that came from the T.O.V?
No submarines or tanks. Army reduced to 100,000 men. Only allowed 6 battleships.
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What were some of the land punishments that came from the T.O.V?
Overseas colonies lost. Land returned to France. Recreate Poland with West Prussia.
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What was the French Invasion of the Ruhr?
Germany was unable to pay their reparations so France invaded the Ruhr to get money from the products being made such as iron.
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What was the response to the Ruhr invasion?
Passive resistance - they wouldn't fight the French so they stopped production of goods. The French then brought in their own workers.
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What was the cause of Hyperinflation 1923?
Things became more expensive due to the French invasion and Germany still needed to pay reparation fees.
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Who benefited from Hyper inflation?
Businessmen - don't have to pay employees any more. Farmers - their food become more valuable. Rich people - protected from the effects.
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Who loses out from Hyperinflation?
Workers - don't get paid more for doing more work. Govt. - Lose trust. Pensioners - their money becomes worthless.
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What were the plans of the Munich Putsch?
Hitler and the early Nazi party wanted to overthrow the weak government so they could have a strong democratic country.
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What were the short term failures of the Munich Putsch?
16 Nazis were killed. Hitler had overestimated the amount of support he had. Hitler was arrested, charged with treason, sentenced to 9 months in prison and he wasn't allowed to speak in public until 1927. None of Hitler's aims were achieved.
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What were the long term successes of the Munich Putsch?
Hitler used the trial to gain support with the extensive publicity he had. Hitler was able to write Mein Kampf and reorganize the Nazi Party. Hitler also realised violence wasn't the best way to gain control of Germany.
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Who was Gustav Stresemann?
Chancellor then Foreign Minister of Germany who helped Germany overcome problems, especially Hyperinflation.
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What was the new currency called?
Retenmark
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What was bad about the Dawes Plan?
Germany was unable to repay USA the money they had borrowed.
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What was the Wall Street Crash?
In America 1929, the banks collapsed and the loans to Germany were stopped. It also meant Germany had to pay back what they had borrowed.
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What was the Great Depression?
The years of crisis (1929-1933) that followed the W.S.C across the world. Germany suffered the most.
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What did Chancellor Bruning do during the depression?
He raised taxes and cut benefits so he was kicked out.
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What did Chancellor Von Papen do during the depression?
Helped Hitler to become Chancellor and got kicked out.
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WWhat did Chancellor Von Schleicher do during the depression?
Made a lot of mistakes so he was kicked out.
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Why was Hitler chosen to be Chancellor in 1933?
He was the leader of the largest political party.
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How did the Reichstag Fire 1933 help Hitler eradicate some of his opposition?
He blamed a young communist. He convinced Hindenburg that the communists were starting a revolution.
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What was the Emergency Decree?
A way for Hitler to get rid of the communists. It meant communists could be arrested on the street, their meetings were broken up, party cut in half and their friends could also be locked up.
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What happened in the March 1933 elections?
Nazi party didn't get the majority of votes so Hitler wasn't happy.
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Why did Hitler join with the Nationalist Party?
They got the majority vote. Hitler also managed to get the Centre Party to support them in exchange for him protecting the Catholic Church (LIAR).
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What was the Enabling Act?
After March 1933 elections where Hitler got the majority, he passed the Enabling Act which allowed him to pass any law he wants for 4 years.
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What did the Enabling Act allow the Hitler to do?
He was able to abolish trade unions, all other parties and the state parliaments. This just left the Nazis.
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What was the Night of Long Knives?
Hitler got the SS to kill all of his internal opposition to the Nazis. Ernst Rohm died. All of the remaining SA swore total loyalty to the SS.
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What was significant about President Hindenburg's death in 1934?
It left no opposition for Hitler, he was able to become a dictator (The Fuhrer).
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What was Dachau concentration camp used for?
Built in 1933 to hold people arrested by the Emergency Decree.
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What is censorship?
Block out information that the public can't know. It controls what the public do know.
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What was book burning?
Book burning was the burning of any book that disagreed with the Nazi views.
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Who was in charge of propaganda?
Joseph Goebbels.
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What forms of propaganda did Goebbels use?
Radio, Cinema, Speeches, Rallies, SS Marches, Posters, Berlin Olympics, Art and Music.
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How did the Nazis make people hate the Jews so they could gain support?
Using Pro-Nazi/ Anti-Semitic Messages.
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What was the Carrot and Stick?
Carrot: Empty promises made by Hitler so people would vote for him. Stick: Fear and terror so people would vote for him.
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Who was Himmler?
Hitler's bodyguard. He was also in charge of all concentration and death camps.
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What was the Gestapo?
Hitler's secret police who were in charge of rounding up people who didn't like Hitler.They used many methods: Phone tapping, spies and controlling lawcourts.
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What were Nazi Courts?
Parliaments and courts used a Nazi judge and jury.
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What did informants do to help the Gestapo?
They reported people who opposed the Nazis. A lot of them were scared children who ratted on their parents.
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How did the Nazis influence schools?
Schools had to teach that the Nazis were the best.
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What was the German Teachers' League?
It was when teachers had to prove that they were teaching the correct Nazi curriculum.
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What was Eugenics?
A subject for girls at school were they were taught how to find the 'perfect' male so they could have as many babies as possible to make a pure Aryan race.
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What were boys and girls brought up to be?
Boys: Soldiers. Girls: Wives and Mothers.
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What were girls taught?
Kinder (Children), Kirche (Church) and Kuche (Cooking).
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What were Napoli Schools?
Schools run by the SS. If boys proved they wanted to be a soldier, they would be sent off to a Napoli School to be trained as a real soldier.
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What was the Hitler Youth?
Hitler's youth project for children aged 10-14 and then boys carried on from 14-18.
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What was the League of German Maidens?
The Hitler youth project for girls aged 14-18 to teach them how to be a proper Nazi woman.
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What was compulsory by 1936?
Youth Clubs.
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What was the Mother's Cross?
Mothers would receive medals depending on the amount of children they had. 4= Bronze. 6= Silver. 8 or more= Gold. They would be rewarded on the 12th August (Hitler's mother's birthday) each year.
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What was the purpose of the German Women's Enterprise?
To teach women household topics and the skills needed for motherhood.
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How did the Law for the Encouragement of Marriage get enforced?
Loans given for marriages. Wife left her job for 1000 marks. Contraception was also no longer sold.
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What was the Lebensborn Programme?
Women were often ***** by SS members to have strong, Aryan children and to increase the birth rate.
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What was the Herrenvolk?
Higher people/ Master Aryan race.
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What were the Untermenschen?
Under people/ Sub-human according to Hitler and the Nazis.
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What was castration the punishment for in concentration camps?
Being openly gay.
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What was the T4 Euthanasia Programme?
Handicapped people were put in homes and then killed.
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What types of people did Hitler try to eradicate?
Gypsies, Blacks, Criminals, Mentally and Physically handicapped, Homosexuals and Jews.
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What were the Nuremberg Laws passed in 1935?
Laws that denied Jews the basic human rights. No voting or government jobs.The laws forbid marriage and sexual relationships between Jews and Aryans. They were also forbidden to join the Army.
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What was Krsitallnacht 1938?
Night of Broken Glass was an organised campaign of terror. Shops of Jews and Synagogues were destroyed. 91 Jews were killed and 20,000 were arrested. Jews were fined for the damage then banned from owning the property.
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What happened when Germany invaded Poland in 1939?
3 million Jews arrested. Nowhere was safe anymore.
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What were ghettos?
Isolated area in a city/town.
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What happened when Germany invaded Russia?
Millions more Jews were forced to dig their own graves and then they were shot. Einsatzgruppen squads were sent into towns and villages to round up the Jews.
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What was the Wannsee Conference?
Senior Nazis meet up to decide the most efficient way to kill the Jews to achieve total extermination in Europe.
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What was Auschwitz?
Auschwitz was the largest of 7 death camps. It was a place where Jews were killed in gas chambers and crematoria.
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What was the Holocaust?
The Holocaust was a period of intense killing. It started when they had decided on the most effective and efficient killing methods.
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Why was the Catholic Church against Hitler?
He broke the Concordat that he made with the Pope claiming he'd protect the church.
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Why were Catholic Schools closed?
They weren't teaching Nazism so they were replaced by the Reich Church who were Protestants who were FOR Hitler.
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Why was Martin Niemoller important?
He opposed Nazism. He spoke out against Hitler to the whole of the Confessional Church. As a punishment, he was placed in a concentration camp for 8 years until he was released by Allies.
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Why was Dietrich Bonhoeffer important?
He was taught to oppose Hitler and he helped plans to overthrow Hitler. He helped found the Confessional Church. As a punishment, he was imprisoned and then hung.
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Who were the Edelweiss Pirates?
They were a group of youths that opposed the Nazis and their ideas.They were against the segregation of the boys and girls in the Hitler Youth movement.
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What did the Edelweiss Pirates do to show their opposition?
They drank alcohol and danced to jazz (not traditional). The girls wore short skirts and made up their faces. They beat up members of the Hitler Youth. They also killed the Gestapo Chief in Cologne.
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How were the Edelweiss Pirates stopped?
12 were publicly hanged and the leader (Schink) was killed at just aged 16.
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Who were the White Rose Group?
Led by Hans and Sophie Scholl who were against all Nazi morals and ethics; they were also anti-war.
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How did the White Rose Group show their opposition?
Sent out anti-war leaflets. Left piles of persuasive leaflets in public and threw them out of university windows.
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How was the White Rose Group stopped?
Jakob Schmidt (Nazi party member) reported them to the Gestapo and the leaders were beheaded at a young age.
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Who led the military opposition to Hitler?
General Beck and Von Stauffenburg; they wanted to stop Hitler losing them the war.
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How did General Beck try to stop Hitler?
He unsuccessfully tried to murder Hitler in March 1943. He wanted to take control of Berlin with the help from the Army.
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How did Von Stauffenburg try to stop Hitler?
He was behind the July 1944 Bomb Plot. He hid a bomb in a briefcase under Hitler's desk in his Headquarters in East Berlin. Hitler suffered minor injuries but 4 people died. 5,000 suspects were executed.
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Why should've Hitler been scared of the military opposition?
They tried to kill him and he didn't know who he could trust in the Army or the SS.
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What was the Reichstag?
The German Parliament.
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How many people were unemployed in Germany between 1928-1932?
1.25 million.
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Card 2

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Explain how ordinary Germans did well out of the new constitutions

Back

The ordinary German people got lots of freedom from the new constitution. This freedom included: Freedom of speech, assembly, belief and freedom from arbitrary arrest.

Card 3

Front

How did proportional representation work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was proportional representation welcome for smaller parties?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How and why might Article 48 have been misused?

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