Geography Specification A

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  • Created by: Pumzy
  • Created on: 16-04-14 19:52
Is where a river begins
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Is what the river flows in
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Is where a river flows into a lake or the sea
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Is an area of highland thats forms the edge of a river basin
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Is a stream or a small river flowing into a main river.
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River basin
Is a area of land drained by a river and its tributaries
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Where two rivers (or tributaries) meet.
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Large boulders roll along the river bed
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Smaller pebbles are bounced along the river bed.
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Fine, light materials is carried along by the river.
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Minerals are dissolved in the water. This is chemical change.
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Hydraulic action
The process involves the force of water against the bed and banks.
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This is the process by which the bed and banks are worn down by the rivers load. The river throws their particles against the bed and banks, sometimes high velocity.
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Matrials (the load) carried by the river bump onto each other and so are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles.
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This is chemical action of river water, the acid in the water slowly dissolves the bed and the banks.
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When a river loses energy, it will drop or deposit some of the materials it is carrying.
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Flood plain
Flat land built of slit on the sides of a river, usually in its lower course
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Bend in a river, usually along its middle or lower course
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Raised bank along the sides of a river, made of silt from river floods.
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Ox-bow lake
Semi-circular lake on the flood plain of a river a cut off meander
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Meander scar
The Ox-bow lake dries up, forming a meander scar
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Water vapor is released through the stomata (pores) in the leaves
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Water is stored on leaves and branches of vegetation.
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Through flow
Water flows horizontally through the soil and rocks
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Water seeps into ground
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Groundwater flow
Water flows horizontally through the rock into the river
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Water turns from water droplets into water vapor
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Surface runoff
Water flows horizontally over the land into the river
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Some rocks. such as sandstone or chalk, let water soak through them.
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Some rocks, such as marble and slate, do not let water soak through them.
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Previous (cont. porous)
Something which allows water to pass through it due to cracks or defects is previous. For example solid granite is neither porous nor permeable. Granite containing cracks and faults may allow water to pas. It then becomes permeable, but still not
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A porous substance allows water to pass through it, making use of the space between the pores. Rocks such as sandstone are porous since they allow water to penetrate the gaps between the rock particles.
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Sandy soil
Is pale colored with lots of small air gaps. Water drains through sandy soil easily so it usually feels quite dry.
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Clay soil
Is an orange or blue-ish sticky soil with very few air gaps. Water does not drain through it easily. When it rains, puddles stay on top of clay soil for a long time.
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Chalky soil
Is a light brown soil. Water drains through it quickly.
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Is different from other soils because it does not contain any rock particles. It is made from very old decayed plants and is dark, crumbly and rich in nutrients (chemicals plants need to grow)
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Flood hydrograph
Shows rainfall amount and discharge of a river then how a river responds to an individual storm.
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Peak rainfall
Is the time when the most rain falls in during the storm.
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Peak flow or discharge
Is when the river reaches its highest bank full level.
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Rising limb
Indicates how quickly the river reached its peak discharge
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Lag time
Is the time it takes from peak rainfall to peak discharge
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Falling or recession limb
Shows how long a river takes for it to go back to its base flow.
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Stormflow or Runoff
Is the discharge created by surface runoff, Baseflow and throughtflow
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Card 2




Is what the river flows in

Card 3




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