Geography - Coast

Backshore
The area between the HWM and the landward limit of marine activity.
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Foreshore
The area lying between the HWM and the LWM.
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Inshore
The area between the LWM and the point where waves cease to have any influence on the land beneath them.
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Offshore
The area beyond the point where waves cease to impact upon the seabed and in which activity is limited to deposition of sediments.
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Nearshore
The area extending seawards from the HWM to the area where waves begin to break
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Swash Zone
The area where a turbulent layer of water washes up the beach following the breaking of the wave.
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Surf Zone
The area between the point where waves break, forming and foamy, bubbly surface and where the waves then move up the beach as swash
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Breaker Zone
The area where waves approaching the coastline begin to break, usually where the water depth is 5 to 10m.
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Fetch
Refers to the distance of open water over which a wind blows uninterrupted by major land obstacles
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Long shore
Approach coastline at an angle. this generates a flow of water running parallel to the shoreline.
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Upwelling
The movement of cold water from deep in the ocean towards the surface. The more dense cold water replaces the warmer water and creates nutrient rich cold ocean currents.
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Tidal Surges
These are occasions when meteorological conditions give rise to strong winds which can produce much higher water levels than those at high tide
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Rip Currents
When waves travel from deep water to shallow water, waves break near the shoreline and generate currents. A narrow, fast moving part of water travels in an offshore direction.
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Sediment cell
Where sediment is built up in certain places, normally between two headlands.
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Coastal sediment budget
Best thought as being a bank account, and is defined as the balance between sediment being added to and removed from the coastal system
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Hydraulic action
The impact a wave has on the cliff can exert enormous pressure causing the rock to weaken
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Wave quarrinying
Breaking waves traps air, causing it to compress into holes and cracks in the cliff. When the wave retreats, the affect can be explosive, due to the air. Suddenly being released. This weakens the cliff over time
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Abrasion
Waves carrying material will hit the rock face causing the material to be beaten against it. This slowly erodes the rock
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Attrition
Rocks in the sea smash together causing them to become more rounded
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Solution
Sediment, such as calcium, is dissolved into the water
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Freeze thaw
water enters cracks in the rocks and freezes as temperatures remain below 0 degrees. as it freezes the water expands by almost 10% meaning the ice occupies more space and so exerts pressure on the surrounding rock
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Pressure release
As the overlying as is unloaded mechanisms within the rock cause it to develop weakness, or cracks and joints as it is allowed to expand
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Aeolian Deposition
refers to the entrapment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It plays an important role in the way beaches are formed
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Eustatic Change
A global change in sea level resulting from an actual fall or rise in the sea level itself
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Isostatic change
Local changes in sea level resulting from the land rising or falling relative to the sea
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Fjord
a long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs, as in Norway, typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley.
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Ria
a long, narrow inlet formed by the partial submergence of a river valley
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Raised beaches (marine terrace)
a former beach now lying above water level owing to geological changes since its formation.
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Saltation
the transport of particles over an uneven surface in a turbulent flow of water
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Traction
large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed
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Suspension
fine light materials are suspended in the water when transported
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The area lying between the HWM and the LWM.

Back

Foreshore

Card 3

Front

The area between the LWM and the point where waves cease to have any influence on the land beneath them.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The area beyond the point where waves cease to impact upon the seabed and in which activity is limited to deposition of sediments.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The area extending seawards from the HWM to the area where waves begin to break

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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