Quality of life (QoL)
The aspects of life that are difficult to measure e.g. health and happiness.
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Standard of living (SoL)
Is about one's possessions and is materialistic based. A high Standard of Living does not ensure a high Quality of Living.
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A place of attractive scenery or historic interest in which tourists swarm in large numbers.
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A disagreement between different groups of people (About interests, needs, people.)
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Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
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Site of Special Scientific Interest
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Area of outstanding natural beauty which give people an opportunity for open air recreation.
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Meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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Solution to Footpath Erosion
Artificial surfaces e.g. Gravel to protect soil. Also may add new routes and footpaths.
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Solution to Litter
Adding bins and fines and also putting up signposts.
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Solution to Congestion on narrow roads
Park and ride schemes, encourage different forms of transportation.
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An area of land around an urban area where the development of houses and other buildings was to be severely restricted to preserve the countryside.
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Areas of land that have not been built on yet.
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Abandoned, derelict land in an urban area - available for redevelopment.
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The outward growth of towns and cities into the countryside areas.
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Causes of Urban Growth
More houses for homeless, More public transport, Space to build, New office blocks, New industries that provide jobs, New shopping centres.
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A place where people live
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Built up area (towns, cities)
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Central Business District
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The 5 areas in the Burgess Model
CBD, Inner City, Inner Suburbs, Outer Suburbs, Countryside
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Problems with the Burgess Model
Refers to MEDC cities only, Generalisation of reality, Model is quite old
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Refers to the type of work people do and the money they earn
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This pattern is found in rural areas of Britain as people who live here need a lot of land to earn a living.
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People cluster together in this pattern, often for protection. It is often found at crossroads.
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Houses may have been built in a line along the flat valley bottom as the hillsides are too steep to build on.
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Where urban areas in towns/cities have MERGED to form one very large urban area.
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Low order goods
Goods that are bought frequently
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High order goods
Goods that are bought less frequently. May be called comparison goods.
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Sphere of influence
The area that people come to buy things. Shops that sell large, high order goods have bigger spheres of influence than low order good shops.
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The minimum population needed to support a shop. High order good shops have a higher threshold.
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Causes of retail changing over time
Internet shopping, Transport and accessibility = more roads, motorways and car ownership has increased, Diet and consumption = more range of foods that are in demand, Larger supermarkets = more choice = less frequent visits, etc.
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a place where basic services, needs e.g. shelter and access to a job are not good enough.
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Cycle of deprivation
-> Poor quality housing -> wealthy people move out -> Few skilled people- industries close down -> Many unemployed -> Poor/unemployed forced to stay-cheaper rents -> Lack of money in area -> Little Money-services shut down -> crime -> cycle
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Number of births per 1000 per year.
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Number of deaths per 1000 per year.
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More births than deaths so population rises.
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More deaths than births so population declines.
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Aged 0-14 years
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Aged 65 +
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The working population who through employment earn wealth, pay taxes and support the 'dependants'.
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Number of years the average person born in a country is expected to live.
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When people move from rural to urban areas. This is common in LEDCs e.g. countryside areas of Brazil to Sao Paulo where they often end up in shanty towns. In MEDCs it is often when young people move to the city for education.
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Reasons that cause people to want to go to an area (e.g. to city areas).
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Reasons that cause people to want to move away from somewhere.
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Is the movement of people from one place to another to live and/or for work.
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People who arrive IN a country.
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People who leave a country.
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Free movement through choice - looking for improved quality of life.
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No personal choice - have to move due to natural disaster/social or economic reasons.
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Move for several weeks or months (often for employment).
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Forced to leave due to fear of persecution (civil war, race, religion, politics).
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They move voluntarily hoping to find employment to improve their standard of living and quality of life.
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The state of atmosphere that changes daily.
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The average weather over a period of 30 years.
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Features of the weather
Temperature, Wind Speed, Air Pressure, Precipitation: Hail, Rain, Sleet, Snow
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Join places of the same pressure.
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Factors affecting temperature
Altitude, Wind, Latitude, Distance from the sea, Aspect
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Places near the equator are hotter because there is a smaller surface area so the areas heat up very quickly. The sun rays also have less atmosphere to pass through. However, in the S and N Pole, there is more atmosphere and a larger surface area.
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Distance from the sea
Sea - less dense than land - sun penetrates deeper into it. But, only surface of land heats up. So, sea = longer to heat up = longer to LOSE the heat. Summer - places inland are warmer. Winter - places by the coast are warmer.
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Type of surface changes the temp. of the wind over which it passes. Summer = warm wind if the prevailing wind blows from the land, but cold in winter. BUT, p. wind = cooler if it's blown from the sea in summer but warmer in winter.
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Sun is in south at noon in Birtain. In the Northern Hemisphere, south facing slopes receive far more sunlight than north facing ones.
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It's cooler on mountains than it is on flat land as there're fewer solid particles to retain the heat and top it escaping into the atmosphere.
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The equatorial climate
It is also referred to as tropical rainforest climate and is defined as a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator. It is a climate characterised by high temperatures all year round, heavy rainfall.
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Hot desert climate
Temperatures highest when the sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer, and lower when it's in the opposite hemisphere.
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Mediterranean climate refers to weather conditions that are characterized by warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters.
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4 Types of farming
Commercial, Subsistence, Extensive, Intensive
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Growing crops, rearing animals for sale to make money.
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Only enough produce made to feed a family, no extra to sell.
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Farm is large in comparison to money spent, low input and output.
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Farm is small compared to amount of money spent, high input and output.
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The climate of a small, localised area (around a building, park, garden).
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Urban heat island
Where there's an increase in temp. of a man-made built up area resulting in distinct 'warm island' among the 'cool sea' represented by lower temps. of nearby surrounding natural landscape.
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Natural greenhouse effect
When heat is trapped in the atmosphere to keep our earth warm. We can't survive without this.
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Human enhanced greenhouse effect
When the atmosphere gets thicker and heat can not escape due to things like CO2, methane etc.
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Causes of Global Warming - factors causing emissions, which countries are the biggest contributors?
Biggest contributors: USA AND CIS. USA - 21% of world's emissions, CIS - 14%. Causes = Industrialisation, Deforestation (less CO2 absorbed), cars, etc. More rubbish in land fields. Rice growing, methane from cows/livestock.
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Negative effects of Global Warming
Environmental: Ice caps and glaciers will melt = destroying habitats and rising sea levels. = Major flooding. Economic: Industrialised countries reluctant to reducing emissions - many would be jobless so a lower SoL. Social: Conflicts.
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Positive effects of Global Warming
Environmental: Nicer weather in certain countries, Other habitats may benefit. Economic: Greenhouse gases = cheaper so industrialised countries have more jobs available. Crops may grow in other countries = more profit. Social:Families go outside more
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Pollution -> Chemicals like sulphur/nitrogen dioxide rise into the air -> Produces acid (Chemical Changes) -> Acid- polluted air blown by wind -> Water droplets in clouds = polluted -> acid rain falls -> water, soil, trees and vegetation harmed
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Boundary between two air masses
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Area of air which has some characteristics e.g. temperature.
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Weight of air
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Direction the wind comes from most of the time
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Opposite side of the mountain to where it rains
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Warm, moist air - blown from sea -> wind meets a line of high hills or mountains -> moist air goes up -> air rises and cools -> water vapour condenses = water droplets -> forms clouds -> larger droplets fall as rain (on the windward side)
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Sun's heat warms the ground -> air above ground is warmed -> warm air rises as a convection current -> air rises and cools -> water vapour condenses to form water droplets -> the tiny droplets form clouds -> droplets join to form clouds = rain
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Mass of warm air meets a cold one -> They don't mix -> Front -> At front, the lighter warm air rises up over colder heavier air -> warm air cools down as it rises -> condenses = tiny water droplets -> clouds -> rain
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Is the relationship and interaction between living plants and animals (biotic) and their non-living (abiotic) physical environment. It relies on a constant flow of energy and recycling of nutrients.
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Group of ecosystems
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Mediterannean, Tropical Rainforest, Savannah, Hot Desert, Coniferous, Tundra, Deciduous
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An animal that only eats plants.
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An animal that only eats meat.
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An animal that eats plants and meat.
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Creatures that live on rotting material.
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They feed on living things in an ecosystem.
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They make their own food from CO2 and Water.
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An animal that kills other animals in order to survive.
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An animal that is hunted by other animals to be eaten.
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Where nutrients are held in a food web
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The transfer of minerals between parts of the ecosystem
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-> Food absorbed by tree roots -> Trees use nutrients to grow&produce leaves -> Leaves die & fall to forest floor -> Fungi/Bacteria break down leaves -> Nutrients added to soil as leaves decompose -> Food absorbed the the tree roots ->
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The state of being clear of trees
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Consequences of Deforestation
Homes lost, Decrease in soil fertility, Loss of wildlife habitat, Reduces oxygen given out by trees, Increases CO2, Increases soil erosion.
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Low Pressure - air rises, cools, condenses to form clouds, precipitates = Rainfall. Winds blow from high to low pressure. Winds = anti-clockwise. Cold Front = heavy rainfall. Warm front = light rain. Warm sector = calm.
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What is a Hurricane? Features of a Hurricane, Key facts.
Areas of low pressure, Start over tropical seas (at least 26 degrees) Energy - transferred from sun to water and rises to create a hurricane. Winds 74mph+, Dameter 300miles+, Winds blow anti-clockwise, Heavy rainfall, Die out when they hit land.
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Warm air rises due to low pressure, -> cools, condenses = clouds. -> Torrential rain as clouds release their moisture. -> Air spirals upwards rapidly in anti-clockwise direction = high winds -> High pressure, cold air sinks at centre of the eye.
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Hurricanes - at the eye
At the wall of eye - intense low pressure = heavy rain and high winds. Centre = calm and clear due to high pressure.
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Seasonal change of wind direction = hot and wet weather. Occur in tropical/sub-tropical regions, Two distinct seasons - dry & wet. Seasons change when wind does. Land is warmer than the sea = air is rising on land = low pressure.
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WET SEASON: Effects of monsoon climate on people
Good = Water -> crops. Flooding -> silt - fertilises soil. Bad = Food shortages if the rains fail. Deaths from flooding. Crops fail if too much rain falls. Floods damage infrastructure.
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DROUGHTS (DRY): Effects of monsoon climate on people
Bad: Food shortage - famine, Aid from other countries, contaminated water - disease. Water shortage, Desertification, Soil erosion, Wells dry up, Ecosystems affected.
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High pressure, air is sinking, still air. No clouds in the sky = sunny. Hot temperatures in summer = (heat waves?). Frosty nights (winters, no clouds to keep in heat).
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Effects of anticyclones
SUMMER: Sunbathing, sunburn. Economy - sales of sunscreen, ice cream increas. Tourism - seaside resorts 'boom'. Crop failure - shortage of some produce so more imports are needed. WINTER: Fog/Mist = delays. De-icing = delays. Economy- winter clothes.
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Types of Industry
Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary
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Extracting natural resources from the land or sea e.g. fishing.
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Making or manufacturing of natural resources e.g steel.
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Providing a service for others e.g. a teacher.
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Jobs requiring technology and certain skills or expertise e.g. research. Industries providing information services, such as computing, ICT, consultancy etc.
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How people are divided in terms of the type of job they do.
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Women and work in MEDCs and LEDCs
MEDCs - Higher status, Mostly in tertiary industry, Range of jobs, Highly skilled and educated, More equality. LEDCs - Low status, Mostly in primary/secondary industry, Low skilled - labour, Primary role = support the family.
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Technology in MEDCs and LEDCs
MEDCs - More high-tech, mechanisation, more advanced, automation. LEDCs - Traditionally: basic subsistence farming, Basic Tools, Labour Intensive. In some modern areas: Industry is jumping staged - rapid advancement e.g. mobile phones & internet.
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An industry that has been around since the 19th century an was based on the use of coal and was very often located near to water.
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Factors which affect the location of an Industry
Government grants, Site, Transport links, Energy & Power, Raw Materials, Where they sell the product, Labour, Any other benefits.
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Multinational Company/Transnational Company
A large company that operates in more than one country. The headquarters are often in MEDCs and he production factories are in LEDCs.
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An industry that is using advanced IT or processes involving micro-electronics.
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A customs duty - charged on good imported into a country.
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An industry that incorporates many different businesses.
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An area that receives extra help in attracting industries. This may be in the form of government grants and low taxes.
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Not tied to one location for raw materials, relatively free choice of location. Most quaternary industry is footloose.
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Edge of city greenfield areas (cheap, spacious and large land), nice working environment (lakes, gardens, greenery).
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Same as business parks but with links to universities for scientific research and development quaternary.
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The level of economic growth of a country/region and the processes of CHANGE taking place within it.
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Formal Labour Market
Legal Work - regulated, set hours of work and pay, health and safety standards, health care, taxed, pensions, other rights, included in official statistics.
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Informal Labour Maket
Consequences of urbanisation in LEDCs, opposite to formal sector (illegal; unregulated; untaxed; not included in the official statistics) Low income, Unlicensed, Huge competition.
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The exchange of good and services between one country and another.
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The process of becoming more liberal and free within trade, removing trade restrictions.
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Means that the value of exports is greater than the imports.
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When there are more imports than exports.
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products were introduced to help LEDCs make more money. Fair trade guarantees the producer a fair price regardless of the world market.
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When you owe someone something i.e. a country might borrow money from the World Bank and owe it back - it will be 'indebted'.
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The extra charge or fee added on top of the original amount borrowed.
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Is the giving of resources by one country or organisation, to another country e.g. money grants, loans, goods, food technology.
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Prolonged period of dry weather with no or little rainfall. Leads to severe water shortage.
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Turning of the land into desert. This can occur where soil erosion takes place.
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Causes of desertification
Physical causes: High pressure weather systems (anticyclones), Less rain due to climate change, lack of moisture. Human causes: Over-cultivation, Over-grazing, Deforestation (for fuel, wood, fire)
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Local community level, small scale = tree planting schemes. International strategies, large scale = reduce use of fossil fuels to minimise the CO2 emissions which leads to Global Warming.
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Solutions to desertification
Planting hedges around fields = stops wind blowing the soil away. Terracing the slopes = reduces soil run-off when it rains. Using fertiliser. Using branches not whole trees for fuel = prevents deforestation. Planting trees that grow quickly.
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When liquid water is heated, turning to water vapour.
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When water vapour is cooled, turning to liquid water.
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The collective name for rain, hail, sleet and snow.
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Water vapour given off by trees.
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When trees block rain from reaching the ground.
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When water travels sideways through the soil to the river.
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When water travels sideways through the rock underground to the river.
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When water travels on top of the ground.
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the depth at which the soil is saturated.
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When water is absorbed into the soil.
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Allow water to soak through e.g. chalk.
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Do not allow water to soak through e.g. granite.
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Area of land drained by a river.
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Where the river begins.
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Where the river meets the sea.
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The area of highland which forms the boundary of a river basin.
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A small river which joins to a large river.
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The place where 2 rivers join.
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The upper section of a river
Big rocks, V Shape Valley, Source, Steep slopes, soft rocks, wears away soils and rock producing waterfalls
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The middle section of a river
Confluence, wider and deeper, deposits sand - makes land fertile, Crops can be grown, more gentle slope
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The lower section of a river
Meets the mouth, flat land, wider and deeper, flooding, ports, oxbow lakes and floodplain, sand: used for fertilisation from the deposited river load.
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The sheer force and power of the river dislodges particles from the rivers bed and banks.
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Material rubs against the banks of the river and wears them away in a sand-papering action.
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When acid in the river dissolves rocks, such as limestone.
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Material collides and breaks up in to smaller pieces.
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Large boulders roll along in the river bed.
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Smaller pebbles are bounced along the river bed in a leap frog motion.
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The finer sand grains and silt are carried along in the flow of the water.
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Minerals, such as limestone and chalk are dissolved in the water and carried along in the flow, although they can't be seen.
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Soft rock = easy to erode, hard rock is resistant so over time a ledge develops -> water rushes over the ledge and erodes the soft rock = over hang = plunge pool -> ledge collapses into plunge pool -> process repeated.
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Meanders - Inside vs Outside bend
Inside bend - River beach - gentle slope, deposition, slowest flow. Outside bend - River cliff - erosion, Deep Water, Fastest flow.
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Oxbow Lake Formation
most of water forced on outside bend = water increases in speed. -> Outside bend keeps on eroding, so the neck of the meander=thinner. -> flood =river has more energy (erodes). = river breaks through the neck - easiest path. -> cuts off from river.
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Groups all the ways we can find water e.g. on earth in seas, lakes, rivers, ice (glaciers). Above earth in clouds - the atmosphere. Below earth in soil, rock, aquifers.
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The highest amount of rain
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The most amount of water in the river
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The time between peak rainfall and peak discharge
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The speed of the river
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the amount of water in the river
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velocity x volume
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When the water level is increasing
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When the water level is decreasing
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Flood protection method
Stilts - water can go through.
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Flood prevention methods
Permeable surfaces, Planting trees and plants = interception, Increase capacity of channel, Channelisation - taking meanders out - water directed quicker, Deepening the channels.
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The cutting down of trees which leaves the soil destabilised and more likely to dry out and blow with the wind. Soil is no longer bound together - it is exposed.
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Sea Wall - stop the waves reaching the land. Rock armour - barrier of large rocks soaks up their energy. Groynes - stop the sand being carried away. Beach replenishment - build up the beach by adding more sand or shingle.
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Where the land and the sea meet
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The distance over which the wind blows.
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Water going up the beach. On-shore.
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Water going down the beach at a 90 degree angle - due to gravity. Off-shore.
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Involves growing crops.
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Involves rearing animals.
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More than is needed, supply exceeds demand.
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Not enough water to meet demand.
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Build up the beach - strong swash - weak backwash - little erosion. Less energy, smaller in height.
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Destroys the coastline - Erosion - Weak Swash - Strong Backwash. Lots of energy, larger in height.
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Headlands and Bays formation
Formed where there are alternating bands of HARD and SOFT rock. Harder rock = more resistant. Softer rock = less resistant. So, softer rock erodes more easily. So, bays are formed.
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Wave cut notches and Wave cut platforms
Sea attacks base of the cliff - undercuts it with solution&hydraulic action=wave cut notch. It gets bigger causing the cliff to collapse under the weight. Backwash of waves carries the rubble towards the sea = wave cut platform. Cliff retreats.
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Destructive waves attack the rock - forms a crack or weakness, caused by hydraulic action.
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The weakness then gets bigger, forming a cave. Abrasion and Hydraulic action.
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Over time, the cave cuts through to the other side leaving an arch.
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The weight becomes too much so the top of the arch collapses leaving a sack. Eventually, the stack collapses = stump.
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Breaks down rocks. OCCURS AT THE CLIFF TOP AND FACE.
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Physical Weathering - Freeze-Thaw action.
Water gets into cracks in cold temps. and freezes. It expands and when temps. rise again, it will thaw and contract. Process repeats = rock cracks.
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Physical Weathering - Onion-skin weathering.
Due to high temps in day and cold temps at night - usually in deserts. High temps - rocks expand. Low temps - layers of rock to contract. = Outer layers of rock peel.
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Includes smaller animals breaking up the rocks e.g. rabbits burrowing. Also includes plants/trees - when their roots grow in the rock, causing it to weather and break up.
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Weak acids in rainwater dissolve the rocks.
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WEATHERING: Break down of rocks in situ. EROSION: Wearing away and movement of eroded material at the BASE OF THE CLIFF.
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The major movement along the coast. Prevailing wind at an angle - swash same angle - carries material. Backwash at 90 degrees. Remember - Direction of LSD. Groynes stop/slow down the movement of LSD.
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Area of sand/shingle which can either extend across a river estuary or out in to the sea. Develop where there is LSD, change in direction of coastline, sea becomes shallower & more shelted.
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Formation of a spit
Prevailing wind approaches coast at an angle - carries eroded material in LSD. At headland, coast changed direction. Water - slightly sheltered - material is deposited - builds up to form a spit. Secondary wind forms a hooked end. => Salt marsh.
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Other cards in this set
Standard of living (SoL)
Is about one's possessions and is materialistic based. A high Standard of Living does not ensure a high Quality of Living.