Fungi

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  • Created by: Amh
  • Created on: 25-03-16 13:43
What sort of pathogens are fungi
Oppurtunistic
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What are the characteristics of fungi
Eukaryotes, membrane enclosed organelles, 18s ribosmal RNA
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How do you classify Fungi
by growth, type of infection
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What are the growth classifications of fungi
yeast, mould/filamentous dimopphic
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What are the 'type of infection' classifications of fungi
superficial mycoses, cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses, adn deep/invasive mycoses
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there is a table in class notes that should probs be flashcards on
got type of infection/where/growthform and causative organism
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What specimens can we use to identify fungi
Blood, sterile fluid CSF, skin scrapings, Nails, Bronchial washing, hair, and biopsy samples
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How do we view it under microscopes
Gram stains, and calcoflour
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What media is needed to grow fungi?
Sabouraud dextrose, cornstarch, mycosel, lactophenol
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How long an it take to grow fungi
8 weeks
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What gram stain are fungi
positive
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What is a calcofluor stain
A fluroescent stain that bind stongly to cellulose and chitin, used to stain buds of yeast because they have lots of chitin.
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What organism is calcofluor stain particularly useful for identfying
Candida albicans
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lactophenol is useful for identifying what organsims?
moulds
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what is a dichotomous key
A way or determining the identity of an organsism
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can you do sensitivity testing on fungi
yes
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What are candida infections
Over growth of noral flora
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What kind of superficial candida infections are there?
Vulvovaginal, oral thrush, intertigo
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What are some invasive candida infections
GI tract infections, and fungal balls in liver spleen and kidneys
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Who gets these invasive candida infections
People who are immunosuppressed or on prolonged antibiotics
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Which type of candida is most common
Candida albicans
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What are some other forms of candida
C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C.krusei, C.parapsilosis
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How do we Identify Candida
Gram stain it, see its growth on blood agar, germ tube, chromagar
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How do you look for germ tube formation
incubate fungi for 2hrs in rabbit plasma/serum
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What are the different germ tubes you can identify
yeasts, hyphal germ tubes, hypha, pseudohyphae
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which cryptococcus is pathogenic 4 humans
Cryptococcus neoformans
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where is cryptococcus neoformans found
soil
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Who does cryptococcus neoformans infect
opportunistic - usually HIV +ve patients
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what does cryptococcus neoformans cause
Meningitis and occasionally lung disease
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What are the features of cryptococcus neoformans
Encapsulated ink
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How do you identify cryptococcus neoformans
India ink stain or antigen testing of spinal fluid
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What does Malassezia furfur cause
Pityriasis versicolour
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Which pneumocystis causes infects humans
Pneumocystis jiroveci
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What does Pneumocystis jiroveci cause
Invasive respiratory infections
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what type of pathogen is it
opputunistic
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How do you identify is
Silver stain of bronchial washing
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Does irt respond to standard antifungals?
NOOOPe
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What is a dimorphic fungi that is found in soil, chicken and rat droppings?
Histoplasmosis capsulatum
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What does Histoplasmosis capsulatum cause
A mild respiratory disease, that can occasionally disseminate in lungs viscera and blood
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Who is most likley to get a disseminated histoplasmosis capsulatum infection
People with HIV
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Where are Histoplasmosis capsulatum infections most likely
Eastern USA and tropics
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How can you identify Histoplasmosis
direct microscopy if tissue, ans sputum for identiication of yeast in macrophages
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How long does histoplasmosis take to grow
up to 6 weeks (requires low temp)
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Is serology and antigen testing available
Yes in reference labs
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What category of pathogen is Histoplasmosis capsulatum
3
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What are Coccidiodes
Dimorphic soil fungi
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Where area are most likeley to have coccidioides iNfections
Southermn USA and mexico (desert regions)
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What does coccidioides usually cause
Acute lung disease
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What can coccidioides cause in immunosppressed
progressive pulmonary disease/ disseminated disease
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How do you identify Coccidiodes
Direct microscopy of tissue or serology
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How do you grow coccidioides
3 weeks on sabouraud's
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What sort of pathogen is coccidioides
cat 3
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Which sporotrichosis is pathogenic to humans
Sporothrix schenckii
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What does Sporothrix schenckii cause
rose picker's disease
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Where is Sporothrix schenckii found
(fungus) found in decaying vegetable matter
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what is rose picker's disease
cutaneous nodular lesions as a result of innoculation into the skin
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What are 3 types of asprgillus that are pathogenic 2 humans
Aspergillus fumigatus, A, flavus, N niger
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What does A fumigatus cause
(An aspergilloma)Allergic alveolitis,
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When does A fumigatuts infection become invasive
in the immunosuppressed
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What does A flavus cause
A similar disease a fumigatus,
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What toxin is created in A flavus infections
Aflatooxin
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What does A niger cause
chronic otitis externa
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How do you identify aspergillus
Different gowth on agar and different appearances after lactonphenol blue test
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What other ways of identifying exact aspergillus are there
Skin test for allergic alveolitis, galactomanna assay (antigen detection) and aspergillus pcipitins (antibody detection
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How do you treat aspergillus
Depends on the disease
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How do you treat alveolitis
Avoidance of dust and give steroids
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How do you trat spergilloma
Gurgical resection
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How do you treat invasive aspergillosis
Systemic antifungals
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What is the most common cause of dermatomycosis
Dermatophytes; microsporum sp, and trichophyton sp
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Where do dermatophytes infct
bdoy hair, groin hair nails, scalp
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How do you get dermato phytes
Person to person, so household contacts and contac sports
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How do you identify dermatophytes
Clinically, and culture skin scrapings and toe nail clippings
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What is mucormycosis
An invasive disease in immunosuppresed caused my Mucor
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What is the treatment for mucormycosis
Debridement and systemic antifungals
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What is the mycetoma
A chroninc skin infection that may involve bone, and is caused by Madurella, acremonium, or apergillus
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How do you treat mycteoma
Surgicalexcision
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Where is mycetoma most likely to occur
tropics
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What are the 3 classes of antifungal drugs
polyenes, azoles, echinocandins
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Give an example of polyenes and their function
amphotericin, it interferes with membrane barrier function
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What is an issue with polyenes
Toxicity
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Give an example of azoles and their function
Fluconazoles, itraconazoles, and keoconazoles, these alter cell membrane function
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Give an example of echinocandins and their function
Caspofungi inhibit cell wall synthesis
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What are the characteristics of fungi

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Eukaryotes, membrane enclosed organelles, 18s ribosmal RNA

Card 3

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How do you classify Fungi

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Card 4

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What are the growth classifications of fungi

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What are the 'type of infection' classifications of fungi

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