Biology Final

Information on plants, animals, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, vertabrates, invertebrates, autoerotrophs, and pathogens

Bacteria

Bacteria - Prokaryotic cells

                    - Decomposers                        - shape -- round, rod shaped, spiral

                    - Small                                     coccas round, bacillas rod shaped, spairilla spiral

Aggregated

  - strepoto - chains

  - staphylo - clumps

Gram stain

- pos. purple

-neg. pink               When culturing the bacteria.

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Protists

Most are single celled organisms

- animal (eats foods) - Paramicium

- plants (make food)

algae - kelp (not single celled)

red, blue, green - different wavelengths -algae, for each color

plants

-volvox - colonial plant

-diatoms - form of phytoplankton

zoe plankton                  dinophaxulates - bloom red tide

phytoplankton                (phisteria) produces toxin

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Animals

-move

   - cilia - short, hairlike

   - flagella - long whip

   - pseudopolia - false foot

   -do not move

   - malaria - caused by protists and cannot move

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Fungi

Fungi - kingdom

-hyphae - single fiber - they secreate enzymes to help decompose

-mycelium (fiber) - made up of all fibers

          - reproduce with spores

          - phylum - zygomycota

               - zygospore - sexual reproduction structure mating strains - one pos, one neg.

                         ex. black bread mold

phylum Assomycota - mushroom - sac fungus - produces ascus - a sac with eight spores

Morel - inside the phylum - yeasts that ferment such as in beer, wine, or bread

phylum - basidiomycota - club fungi (basidium club) with four spores of gills

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Fungi cont.

Examples of fungi

Penecilium mold with penecillium

Atheletes foot 

lichen - fungus associated with fungi/algae

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Virus

Virus - covering, and nucleic material (DNA or RNA)

Virus is a noncellular parasitic agent consisting of an outer capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid. (nonmetabolic)

                      covering -capsid (protein)              

                                   - envelope might not have one

-virus particles-

                          inner core - nucleic acid (RNA and DNA)

                                         - proteins (enzymes)

all viruses - obligate (only exisit ) as cellular parasites

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Viruses do 2 things when infecting cell

Viruses do 2 things when infecting cell:

1. lytic cycle - take over cellular machinary and makes new viruses

2. Lysogenic cycle - genetic material incorporated into cell and hangs out, then switches over to the lytic cycle

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Plants

Types of Plants

non-vascular - no conductive tissue (Bryophytes)

^relatively small

Example: moss - reproductive through spores (haploids), the seeds (diploids)

        vascular plants

        - conducting tissue - roots up

            - xylen - conducts water up, dissolves minerals

            - phloem - dissolve sugars

Through the veins and leaf

2 groups - seedless - club mosses, ferns, fiddle heads

             - seed plants (gymnosperms) naked seeds - no hard cover - gingkos, conifers (cones)  - angiosperms (covered seed) flowering plants - eudicots (dicots) , monocotsExample: acorn, corn, oak trees, roses, apples - coevolved with insects

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Lytic Cyle, Lysogenic Cycle

Flu - Lytic Cycle (bacterial) 

      -HIV replication - Lysogenic Cycle

Lytic Cycle - Immediately takes over            

Lysogenic Cycle - injects, incorporates material, lies low, and needs trigger to begin

Smaller Infectious things

viroids - naked RNA

Prions - proteinacious (complex fiborous structure) infectious particles

Bovine spongiform encephalothpy (mad cow)

Kretchfeld - Jacob syndrome (people) (mad cow)

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Baterialphage

prokaryotes - function - decomposition

   - bacteria and archea

                                   - glycocalyx

           cellular envelope - cell wall (petidogylcan)

cell                               - plasma membrane

           cell cytoplasm - nucleoid

                                 - ribosomes

                                - thylakoids (cytonobacteria)

       appendages - flagella, conjunction pilus - (flabriae)

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Invertebrates, Vertabrates

Invertebrates - no backbone

Vertabrates - Backbone

Phylum - porifera - sponges

             - cnidaria - stinging cells

Phylum - platyhelminthes (flat worms)

tapeworms, flukes - parasites

phylum - Nematodes - Round worms

Phylum - Mollusca - squid, octopus

Phylum - Annelida - segmented worms       Phylum - Arthropods - jointed legs -shrimp, crab   

 - Earthworms - crop and a gizzard     Phylum - Echinoelermata - spiny skinned -sand dollar

- Leeches

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Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes - circular dna plasmid

  -nucleoid

  - plasmid - pieces of DNA

Binary Fission

  - Recombination of DNA - (reproduction)

          - conjugation - baacteria temporarily linked together, Dna passes to recipient cell

         - transformation - picks up dna from surroundings

         - transduction - dna carried from one cell to another

 - bacteriophage

         - obligate anaerobe (cannot grow with oxygen)

- facultative anerobe -grows with oxygen

Photoautotrophs - use light 4 energy some produce oxygen some do not.

Chemoautotrophs - found in thermal vents - no light for energy

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Autoerotrophs

Autoerotrophs

 - chemical autoerotrophs - use chemical as energy source

Heterotrophic Bacterial - Ingests Food

Saprotrophs - Eats dead things - (large/small) - decomposer

Symbiotic Relationship

 - living together 3 ways

     1. commensilism - 1 benefits, 1 no effect

- parasitism - 1 benefits, 1 harmed i.e. tape worms/ ticks

-mutualism - both benefit - sea annemine and clown fish

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Pathogens

Parasitic - bacteria - cause disease

             - endospores- resistant to death

Example: Anthorax - produce toxins (metabolic by products that are bad for you)

treated with antibiotics such as MRSA

cyanobacteria - photosynthetic i.e. blue, green, algae

symbiotic relationship - lichen - fungi and cyanobacteria

fungi protects and gives inorganic nutrients, cyanobacteria provides food

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Archae - oldest

Archae - oldest

 - extremophiles - live in extreme enviornments

3 types

1. methanoges - live in bottom of swamps ect.- makes methane

2. Halophiles - salty enviornments

3. Thermoacidophies - different temps cause different changes in bacterial colors

      - organge, green, blue

- hot and acidic (Such as Yellow Stone, Dead Sea) releases pressure

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Protists

Protists - Most are single cells

Most diverse example ameoba

Domain - Eukaryia

            - supergroup - protists are sorted by supergroup - is between eukaryia, and kingdom

            -Kingdom

Supergroups - archaeplastids

  green algae, at the surface             red algae is deeper down

Land plants

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Protists cont.

Chromoalreolates - brown algae - kelp

                          - diatoms - silica shell

Ciliates - cilia shorta nd numerous

            - dinoflagelletes - red tide (toxic)

Excavates - flagella or oral groove (leads to mouth)

  - Euglenoides (photosynethic/animal)

Amoebozoans

 - ameboids - pseudopodia (false feet) such as white blood cells

Opisthokonts

  - fungi

  - animals

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Fungi

Mycelium - (strands all together)           hyphae (single strand)

spore - is a reproductive cell that develops into a new organism without the need to fuse with another reprodcutive cell

phylum - basidiomycota - club fungi

Types of fungi

basidium - club - four spores

phylum ascomycota - sac fungi

ascus - sac such as a morel

examples, penicillium, yeasts (fermentation), ringworm, atheletes foot

phlyum zygomycota - sporangiospores (asexual part)

-short gun fungus grows on cow pies   , primary decomposers/antibiotics/ commercial sales

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Plants

3 organs

leaves - photosynthesis (green - chlorophyll) ex. indian pipe has white stems

stems - hold the leaves

roots - absorb water and dissolved nutrients

roots - fiborous grasses (about the same size/small), taproots - ex. carrots (one/big)

vascular tissue - conducting tissue water from roots, sugars from leaves

xylem - water goes up

phyluem - sugar to all parts

leaves have sylem and phyluem

stems (veins) they run together/ and seperate     roots - both tissues in roots

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Seed plants

gymnosperms - uncovered seeds

- conifers - cones (holds seeds) no shiny covering

ex. red woods, bristle cone pines

-angiosperms - (flowering plants) dominate plant species (good for reproducing)

ex. oak trees

Chestnuts, rice, wheat barley --- carbohydrates

fruit - seeds - tomato, pepper, squash

carrots - bi annuals

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